[48a - 35 lines; 48b - 55 lines]

1)[line 21]לוקח עבד מן העובד כוכבים צריך לקבלLOKE'ACH EVED MIN HA'OVED KOCHAVIM TZARICH L'KABEL- that is, if one buys a slave from a Nochri [and immediately frees him], since the slave never practiced the Mitzvos, he is required to accept the Mitzvos upon being freed. [However, if the slave is purchased from a Jew, and already practiced Mitzvos for a while as a Jew's slave, it is not necessary for him to accept upon himself to keep the Mitzvos when he is freed.]

2a)[line 26]תקוץTAKUTZ- she should cut them

b)[line 27]תגדילTAGDIL- she should let them grow long

3)[line 31]ניוולNIVUL- disgrace, ugliness

4)[line 33]"ומפבשת בן שאול ירד לקראת המלך לא עשה רגליו ולא עשה שפמו""U'MEFIVOSHES BEN SHAUL YARAD LI'KERAS HA'MELECH, V'LO ASAH RAGLO V'LO ASAH SEFAMO" - "And Mefivoshes, son of Shaul, went down to greet the king. He had not shaved the hair of his legs or his moustache, [nor had he washed his clothes, from the day that the king left (Yerushalayim) until the day that he returned in peace.]" (Shmuel II 19:25) (MEFIVOSHES)

(a)Following David's suppression of the rebellion of his son Avshalom and the defeat of the latter's army, the people (many of whom had sided with Avshalom) unanimously recalled David to Yerushalayim to take back the throne and to rule over them.

(b)Among the many subjects of David who came to Yerushalayim to greet him upon his return was Mefivoshes, who was the son of Yonasan (Shaul's son). Grief-stricken at David's predicament, he had neither shaved nor washed his clothes since David fled from Avshalom. When David asked him why he failed to join him upon his departure, he replied that his slave Tziva had tricked him. Mefivoshes went on to explain that he was lame and could not possibly have accompanied David on foot, so he had planned to saddle one of his donkeys to join David. Tziva, however, had taken his pair of donkeys, which he had laden with a generous gift of food, and presented them as a gift to the exiled king as he made his way out of Yerushalayim. When David inquired about his master's son (Mefivoshes), Tziva replied that Mefivoshes was remaining in Yerushalayim in anticipation of David's defeat, hoping that Yisrael would return to him the throne that was rightfully his (as he was the sole heir of Shaul ha'Melech).

(c)Mefivoshes was aware of Tziva's evil plan, as he now intimated to David. He also acknowledged the kindness David had displayed towards him, having fed him at his table ever since Shaul and Yonasan were killed in battle, despite the fact that his grandfather (Shaul) had attempted to take his life, and David owed him nothing.

(d)David, however, did not accept Mefivoshes' version of the story, and, as he informed him, he had already issued the verdict that Mefivoshes and Tziva were to divide Mefivoshes' field, and there was nothing more to discuss. (What he actually said there (16:4) was that he had given all of Mefivoshes' property to Tziva.) Mefivoshes (incredibly) replied that he would not care even if the king would give all his property to Tziva; his only concern was that David had returned safely to his house, and that this is what made him most happy.

(e)The Gemara in Yoma (22a) concludes that when David said to Mefivoshes, "You and Tziva shall divide the field," a Bas Kol proclaimed, "Rechavam and Yeravam shall divide the kingdom!"

48b----------------------------------------48b

5)[line 5]ירח שלשים ימים שלשים ואחר כן שלשיםYERACH, SHELOSHIM; YAMIM, SHELOSHIM; V'ACHAR KEN, SHELOSHIM- the word "Yerach," "a month," refers to thirty days; the word "Yamim," "days," refers to thirty days; the words "v'Achar Ken," "and after this [period]," refer to another thirty days

6)[line 11]"וינפש בן אמתך""V'YINAFESH BEN AMASECHA"- "[Six days you shall do your work, and on the seventh day you shall rest; that your ox and your donkey may rest,] and the son of your maidservant, and the stranger, may be refreshed." (Shemos 23:12)

7a)[line 19]גר תושבGER TOSHAV

The Gemara (Avodah Zarah 64b) quotes three opinions regarding who is a Ger Toshav. Rebbi Meir maintains that a Ger Toshav is a Nochri who accepts upon himself, in front of three "Chaverim" (Talmidei Chachamim), not to worship idols. The Chachamim say that a Ger Toshav is a Nochri who accepts upon himself to observe the seven Mitzvos of Bnei Noach (see Background to Avodah Zarah 46:4). Acherim maintain that the above opinions are incorrect, and that a Ger Toshav is a Nochri who accepts all of the Mitzvos except for not eating Neveilos (animals that were not slaughtered properly). See Insights to the Daf and Audio Shi'ur to Avodah Zarah 64: Ger Toshav.

b)[line 20]גר צדקGER TZEDEK- a convert to Judaism

8)[line 24]מגלגל עמוMEGALGEL IMO- he puts up with him (giving him time for reconsideration)

9)[line 29]דלא פסקא למילתיהD'LO PASKA L'MILSEI- (a) where the slave never stopped considering himself a Nochri; (b) where the owner did not set a limit to the amount of time the slave would work for him without accepting upon himself the Mitzvos

10)[line 42]אקילעאA'KIL'A- on the porch

11)[line 47]ובעיר הסמוכה לספרUV'IR HA'SEMUCHAH LA'SEFAR- and a city that is on the border (O.F. marche - border, frontier)

12)[line 52]בדקדוקי מצותB'DIKDUKEI MITZVOS- with the minute details of the Mitzvos

13)[line 53]"ישלם ה' פעלך ותהי משכרתך שלמה מעם ה' אלקי ישראל אשר באת לחסות [תחת כנפיו]""YESHALEM HASH-M PA'ALECH, U'SEHI MASKURTECH SHELEIMAH ME'IM HASH-M ELOKEI YISRAEL ASHER BA'S LACHASOS [TACHAS KENAFAV]" - "May HaSh-m repay your good deeds [in this world - Targum Yonasan], and may your remuneration be complete [in the World to Come] from HaSh-m, the G-d of Yisrael, that you came to take shelter [under His wings]." (Ruth 2:12) (BOAZ'S BERACHAH)

(a)Boaz returned from the city, Beis Lechem, and he could not help but notice this extraordinary woman collecting Leket in his field. Two things about her struck him, Chazal explain, causing him to ask the foreman who she was: one, her exceptional modesty (rather than bending down when collecting corn, she would bend her knees and lower herself); the other, the care that she took to avoid collecting three grains that had fallen on the same spot, in accordance with the Halachos of Leket. Needless to say, these two points would work together to limit the amount of grain that she would be able to collect for herself. It is no surprise, then, that after the foreman informed Boaz that the woman was Ruth, he pointed out to Boaz how little she had managed to collect, despite having spent a full day in the field.

(b)Boaz, who already knew all about Ruth (but had not known that this was her), approached her and instructed her to remain in his field and to stay with his girls until the end of the harvest season. He told her how he had already ordered his workers not to bother her, and granted her permission to help herself to the water that they drew for themselves. Ruth reacted by expressing her gratitude to Boaz for his kindness, adding that as a total stranger she did not deserve it.

(c)Boaz, however, reminded her of her kindness towards her mother-in-law and her deceased husband, abd how she had left her parental home and her birthplace to accompany Naomi to a strange country with which she was totally unacquainted. He added the verse quoted above.

(d)Ruth's response is interesting. "Let me find favor in your eyes my master, for you have consoled me, and because you spoke words that entered the heart of your maidservant; and I am not worthy of being like one of your maidservants." Her total humility after the preferential treatment that she received from the Gadol ha'Dor is another indication of her own greatness, and a lesson in itself.

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