DIFFERENCES BETWEEN KORBANOS YACHID AND KORBANOS TZIBUR
(Mishnah): There are laws of Korbanos Yachid that do not apply to Korbanos Tzibur, and vice-versa;
Korbanos Yachid make Temurah. Korbanos Tzibur do not;
Korbanos Yachid are brought from males and females. Korbanos Tzibur are only males;
One has Acharayus for (some) Korbanos Yachid and their Nesachim (to bring them later if they were not brought in the right time). There is no Acharayus for Korbanos or Nesachim of the Tzibur;
However, if a Korban Tzibur was brought without Nesachim, there is Acharayus for the Nesachim.
There are laws of Korbanos Tzibur that do not apply to Korbanos Yachid;
Korbanos Tzibur override (may be brought on) Shabbos and Tum'ah (if they cannot be brought b'Taharah, they are brought b'Tum'ah). Korbanos Yachid do not;
R. Meir: Chavitei Kohen Gadol (the Minchah he brings every day) and the Par (of the Kohen Gadol) of Yom Kipur are Korbanos Yachid, yet they override Shabbos and Tum'ah!
Rather, Korbanos with a fixed time override Shabbos and Tum'ah.
(Gemara - Mishnah): Korbanos Yachid make Temurah...
Questions: This is not always true!
Question #1: Some Korbanos Yachid are brought from birds. They do not make Temurah!
Answer: Korbanos Yachid of Behemos make Temurah.
Question #2: Vlados Kodshim are a Korban Yachid (the Tzibur brings only males), yet they do not make Temurah!
Answer #1: Our Mishnah is like R. Yehudah, who says that Vlados Kodshim make Temurah.
Question #3: Temurah may be brought for a Korban Yachid. It does not make Temurah!
Answer (and Answer #2 to Question #2): The Mishnah means that initial Hekdesh of Korbanos Yachid make Temurah.
(Mishnah): Korbanos Yachid are brought from males and females.
Question #1: Olah is a Korban Yachid. It must be male!
Answer #1: Olas ha'Of can be female.
Question #2: Chatas (of a commoner) is a Korban Yachid. It must be female!
Answer #1: Chatas of a Nasi (the king) is a male.
Question #3: Asham is a Korban Yachid. It must be male!
Answer #1: The Mishnah means that any Korban Yachid that applies also to the Tzibur can be male or female.
Answer #2 (to Questions 1-3): The Mishnah means that there are Korbanos Yachid that can be male or female, i.e. Shelamim.
ACHARAYUS FOR NESACHIM
(Mishnah): One has Acharayus for Korbanos Yachid and their Nesachim... (there is no Acharayus for Korbanos or Nesachim of the Tzibur).
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer (Beraisa #1): "Devar Yom b'Yomo" teaches that Musaf may be offered the entire day;
"B'Yomo" teaches that if it was not brought on the day, there is no Acharayus (to bring it later).
Suggestion: Perhaps there is no Acharayus for Nesachim (that should accompany Musafim) even if the Korban was brought!
Rejection #1: "Minchasam v'Niskeihem" teaches that they may be brought at night, or the next day.
Rejection #2 (Reish Lakish): "Milvad Shabsos Hash-m" (teaches that if Nesachim of Shabbos were not brought on Shabbos, they may be brought on a later day, even on Yom Tov).
The Torah needed to write both of these;
Had it written only "Milvad Shabsos Hash-m", we would know only that Nesachim may be brought on a later day, we would not know that they may be brought at night;
Had it written only "Minchasam v'Niskeihem", we would know only that Nesachim may be brought the following night. We would not know that they may be brought on a later day.
Question: Why would we think so?
Answer: Regarding Kodshim, the night is (usually) considered the completion of the previous day.
Question: Nesachim may not be brought at night!
(Beraisa #2): ("Hi ha'Olah... Kol ha'Lailah") teaches that things that may be offered at night, such as limbs and Chelev, may be put on the Mizbe'ach after sunset and left to burn all night;
Question: What is the source that things offered (only) during the day, such as Kometz (the handful taken from a Minchah), Levonah (frankincense) and Minchas Nesachim (that accompanies a Korban), may be put on the Mizbe'ach after sunset...
Interjection: What is offered only during the day may not be put on the Mizbe'ach after sunset!
Correction: Rather, what is the source that things offered during the day, such as Kometz, Levonah and Minchas Nesachim, may be put on the Mizbe'ach just before sunset and left to burn all night?
Answer: "Zos Toras ha'Olah" includes them.
Summation of question: Beraisa #2 says that Minchas Nesachim is offered (only) during the day!
Answer #1 (Rami bar Chama): Beraisa #1 teaches that one may be Mekadesh Nesachim (through putting them in a Kli) at night. Beraisa #2 says that they must be offered during the day.
Objection (Rava): If Kidush may be at night, they may be offered at night!
(Beraisa): The general rule is, anything offered during the day, one may be Mekadesh it during the day;
Anything offered during the night, one may be Mekadesh it at night. (Anything offered at either time, one may be Mekadesh it at either time. Rashash deletes this, for Minchas Nesachim is the only thing that may be offered at night.)
Answer #2 (Rav Yosef): We must delete "Minchas Nesachim" from the text of Beraisa #2.
Rav Dimi went to Eretz Yisrael, and heard the following;
(R. Yirmeyah citing R. Yehoshua ben Levi) Question: What is the source that Nesachim that come with a Korban (Rambam; R. Gershom - they were already Kodesh when it was offered; Rashi - Shechitah was Mekadesh them) must be offered during the day?
Answer: "Ul'Niskeichem ul'Shalmeichem" teaches that just like Shelamim must be offered during the day, also Nesachim.
Rav Dimi: If I knew someone going to Bavel, I would send a letter to Rav Yosef. We need not delete "Minchas Nesachim" from Beraisa #2!
Answer #3 (Rav Dimi): Nesachim offered with a Korban must be offered during the day. Nesachim offered by themselves may be offered at night.
WRITING ORAL TORAH
Question: Rav Dimi wanted to send a letter to Rav Yosef with his answer. One may not write Oral Torah!
(R. Aba citing R. Yochanan): One who writes Halachos is like one who burns the Torah. (One may not save it from a fire on Shabbos. Alternatively, one must destroy it);
One who learns from written Halachos is not rewarded for this.
(R. Yehudah bar Nachmani): It says "Kesov Lecha Es ha'Devarim ha'Eleh", and "Ki Al Pi ha'Devarim ha'Eleh";
This forbids learning Oral Torah that was written, and learning written Torah by heart.
(Beraisa - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): "Kesov Lecha Es ha'Devarim ha'Eleh" teaches that you may write Oral Torah, but not Halachos.
Version #1 (our text) Answer: Perhaps one may write a new insight (e.g. Rav Dimi's answer).
Version #2 (Shitah): Rabanan rely on memory. We write Oral Torah in case they will forget. (end of Version #2)
Support: R. Yochanan and Reish Lakish (Shitah - when they would forget) used to look in a Sefer of Agadata (non-Halachic teachings) on Shabbos;
They permitted this due to "Es La'asos la'Shem Heferu Torasecha." It is better to uproot a law of Torah in order that Torah will not be forgotten.
TIMES AND PLACES FOR HAKRAVAH
(Rav Papa): Since Nesachim offered by themselves may be offered at night, if Nesachim became available at night, one may be Mekadesh them and offer them at night.
Support (Rav Yosef brei d'Rav Shemayah - Beraisa): The general rule is, anything offered during the day, one may be Mekadesh it during the day. Anything offered during the night, one may be Mekadesh it at night.
(Rav Ada bar Ahavah): They become Pasul at dawn, like limbs of an Olah (our text; R. Gershom - they become Pasul when the limbs of the morning Tamid are offered).
(Rav Dimi): "Elu Ta'asu la'Shem b'Mo'adeichem" - Chovos due to the festival (are brought during the festival);
"Levad mi'Nidreichem v'Nidvoseichem" permits offering Nedarim and Nedavos during Chol ha'Mo'ed. (Also the following Derashos permit offering on Chol ha'Mo'ed. Many ask why a verse is needed for this, especially according to the opinion that the entire Isur Melachah on Chol ha'Mo'ed is mid'Rabanan. Shitah Mekubetzes suggests that perhaps it comes to obligate bringing them on Chol ha'Mo'ed. If not, one will transgress Bal Te'acher. Emek ha'Netziv (on Sifri) answers that one might have thought that "Elu Ta'asu... " teaches that only Temidim and Musafim may be brought on Chol ha'Mo'ed.)
Question: What do we learn from "l'Oloseichem"?
It cannot teach about Olos of Nedarim or Nedavos. "Levad mi'Nidreichem v'Nidvoseichem" teaches those!
Answer: It refers to Olas Yoledes and Olas Metzora.
Question: What do we learn from "ul'Minchoseichem"?
It cannot teach about Menachos of Nedarim or Nedavos. The verse already taught them!
Answer: It refers to Minchas Chotei (that a very poor person brings for a Chatas Oleh v'Yored) and Minchas Sotah.
"Ul'Niskeichem ul'Shalmeichem" equates Nesachim to Shelamim;
Just like Shelamim must be offered during the day, also Nesachim.
"Ul'Shalmeichem" includes Shalmei Nazir.
Question (Abaye): Shalmei Nazir is already included in Nedarim and Nedavos! Rather, we should include Shalmei Pesach (a Shelamim brought on Erev Pesach, in order that Pesach will be eaten after one is satiated from other Kodshim. It is a Chovah.)
(Mishnah): The general rule is, only what is brought for a Neder or Nedavah may be offered on a Bamas Yachid.
(Beraisa - R. Meir): Menachos and (Korbanos) Nezirus may be offered on a Bamas Yachid.
Answer: We must delete "Nezirus" from the text of the Beraisa. (Tosfos - we could have answered that Tana'im argue about Rav Dimi's law. Shitah Mekubetzes brings a text that explicitly says so.)
Question: Surely, all must agree that Nezirus may be offered on a Bamas Yachid!
"Mi'Ketz Arba'im Shanah va'Yomer Avshalom... Elchah Na va'Ashalem Es Nidri Asher Nadarti la'Shem b'Chevron".
Suggestion: 'Nidri' refers to Korbanos Nezirus. (Avshalom said that he would offer them in Chevron, on a Bamas Yachid.)
Answer #1: No, it refers to his vow to be a Nazir. (He vowed this in Chevron.)
Rejection: He vowed Nezirus in Geshur!
Answer #2 (Rav Acha): He went to Chevron (for that is the best place) to get lambs.
Support: Surely, he would not prefer to bring Korbanos in Chevron rather than in Yerushalayim!
Objection: If he went just to get lambs, it should not say "b'Chevron", rather, "me'Chevron"!
Defense of suggestion: Really, he went to offer them in Chevron;
Question: Why would he prefer to bring Korbanos in Chevron rather than in Yerushalayim?
Counter-question: Why do you assume that it is better to offer them in Yerushalayim, and not (on the Bamas Tzibur) in Giv'on?
Answer to both questions: Once Bamos Yachid were permitted, one may offer anywhere l'Chatchilah.
Question: "Mi'Ketz Arba'im Shanah" - what happened 40 years before this?
Answer (Beraisa - R. Nehurai): It was 40 years after Bnei Yisrael requested a king. (Shitah - the Navi teaches how quickly a rupture in the kingship arose.)
(Beraisa): Bnei Yisrael requested a king in the tenth year of Shmuel's reign. (He was Shofet (judge) over Yisrael);
Shmuel reigned 10 years by himself, and one year together with Sha'ul. Sha'ul ruled two years by himself, and David ruled 37 years before Avshalom's rebellion.