LIABILITY FOR SLAUGHTERING A BEN PAKU'A
(If one slaughters a pregnant animal, the fetus is permitted as if it itself was slaughtered.)
Question (Abaye): If one said "this animal is a Shelamim and its fetus is Chulin" and he slaughtered it inside (the Mikdash), is he liable for (slaughtering) Chulin in the Azarah?
The question (Rashi, according to R. Rensburg - is according to everyone if the mother was pregnant when he was Makdish it; additionally, if it became pregnant later, it) is according to the opinion that Vlados Kodshim become Kodesh when they are born.
Answer (Rav Yosef): No. "Ki Yirchak Mimcha ha'Makom", which forbids Chulin b'Azarah, does not apply (since one may not slaughter it outside the Mikdash).
Question (Abaye): If one said "This animal is Chulin and its fetus is a Shelamim" and he slaughtered it outside, is he liable for Shechutei Chutz?
Version #1 - Answer (Rav Yosef): No - "ve'Hevi'um la'Shem", which forbids Shechutei Chutz, does not apply (since one may not slaughter it inside).
Version #2 - Answer (Rav Yosef): No. One is liable for Shechutei Chutz only for something that may be slaughtered in the Mikdash.
THINGS THAT ARE ACCORDING TO THE PROPORTION
(Mishnah): If Dimu'a (a mixture of Terumah and Chulin) became mixed with Chulin, it is Medame'a (forbids the mixture to Zarim or Teme'im, as if it was Terumah) according to the amount of Terumah it contains (i.e. only if there is less than 100 times as much Chulin as Terumah. We assume that the Terumah and Chulin mixed uniformly.)
If a dough fermented with Se'or (sourdough) of Terumah (Rashi; Tosfos - if Se'or of Chulin and Se'or of Terumah) fell into a Chulin dough and fermented it, it forbids the Chulin, according to the amount of Terumah;
If Mayim She'uvim (water that was in a Kli) fell into an (incomplete) Mikveh, it forbids it according to the amount (this will be explained);
Mei Chatas cannot be Metaher until the ashes are put (on it);
A Beis ha'Pras (a field in which a Mes was plowed; mid'Rabanan it is Tamei, lest the plow dragged bones) does not make a Beis ha'Pras (this will be explained);
(More) Terumah cannot be taken (from the remaining Chulin) after Terumah was taken;
(An animal that became Kodesh through) Temurah or Vlados Kodshim cannot make Temurah;
R. Yehudah says, Vlados Kodshim make Temurah;
Chachamim: (Initial) Hekdesh makes Temurah. Vlados Kodshim do not make Temurah.
(Gemara) Question: Who is the Tana of the Mishnah?
Answer (R. Chiya bar Aba): It is unlike R. Eliezer:
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): If one Se'ah of Terumah fell into less than 100 Se'ah of Chulin, and some of the Dimu'a fell into other Chulin, it forbids it as if it was pure Terumah;
Chachamim say, it forbids only according to the amount of Terumah it contains.
(Mishnah): If a dough fermented by (Tosfos - if Se'or of Chulin and) Se'or of Terumah fell into Chulin and fermented it, it forbids the Chulin, according to the amount of Terumah.
(R. Aba): Our Mishnah is unlike R. Eliezer:
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): If Se'or of Chulin and of Terumah fell into a (Chulin) dough, and there was not enough of either one to ferment the dough, and together they fermented it, the dough is like the last one that fell in. (If it was Terumah, only Kohanim may eat it, in Taharah);
Chachamim say, no matter which fell in last, it is forbidden (like Terumah) only if there was enough (Se'or of) Terumah to ferment it without the Chulin. (There, Abaye explains that (even when the Chulin fell in last,) R. Eliezer permits only if the Terumah was removed before the Chulin fell in. If not, it is forbidden. R. Eliezer forbids Zeh v'Zeh Gorem, and Chachamim permit.)
WHEN MAYIM SHE'UVIM INVALIDATE A MIKVAH
(Mishnah): Mayim She'uvim forbid according to the amount...
Question: Who is the Tana of the Mishnah?
Answer #1 (R. Chiya bar Aba): It is R. Eliezer ben Yakov:
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer ben Yakov): If there are 21 Sa'im of rainwater in a Mikveh, one may pour 19 Se'ah into a furrow so they will fall in, and the Mikveh is Kosher;
This is because Mayim She'uvim can become Kosher for a Mikveh through [being mixed with] a majority [of Kosher water] and Hamshachah (flowing on the ground).
Inference: Chachamim hold that a majority and Hamshachah do not help!
Objection: Ravin taught that if a Mikveh was made entirely from Mayim She'uvim through Hamshachah, it is Kosher.
This is not like Chachamim, nor like R. Eliezer!
Answer #2 (Rabah): The Mishnah means that Mayim She'uvim forbid according to the number of Kelim. It is like Yosef ben Choni:
(Beraisa - Yosef ben Choni): If three Lugim were poured into a Mikveh from at most three Kelim, they disqualify the Mikveh;
If they came from four or more Kelim, they do not disqualify it (for less than one Log fell from each Kli).
MAKING MEI CHATAS
(Mishnah): Mei Chatas are not Metaher until the ashes are put.
Question: Who is the Tana of the Mishnah?
Answer (R. Chiya bar Aba): It is unlike R. Shimon. (Rashi explains that the following Beraisa refers to Mei Sotah. Sefas Emes brings evidence that it refers to Mei Chatas.)
(Beraisa): If earth (or ashes) was (were) put in the Kli before the water, it is Pasul;
R. Shimon is Machshir.
Question: What is his reason?
Answer (Beraisa - R. Shimon) Question: Why does it say "v'Lakchu la'Tamei me'Afar Serefas ha'Chatas"? We put ashes of the Parah Adumah in the water, and not earth!
Answer: It says "Afar" instead of "Efer" in order to make a Gezeirah Shavah to Sotah. There it says "Afar";
Just like there, the earth should be put on the water, also here;
Just like here, if the earth was put before the water, it is Kosher, also there.
Question: What is the source that (here) if the ashes were put before the water, it is Kosher?
Answer - contradiction: It says "v'Nasan Alav" (implying that the water is last), and it says "Mayim Chayim El Kli" (implying the water precedes the ashes)!
Resolution: Either of them may be first.
Question: Why does our Tana disqualify if the ashes were put first?
Answer: The Seifa (end of the verse), "Mayim Chayim El Kli", must be fulfilled (literally);
The Reisha, "v'Nasan Alav," teaches that the ashes must be mixed with the water.
Question: Perhaps we should fulfill the Reisha (literally)!
Answer: We always find that the Machshir is on top (e.g. regarding Sotah, the earth. Here, the ashes are Machshir.)
(Mishnah): A Beis ha'Pras does not make a Beis ha'Pras.
Our Mishnah is unlike R. Eliezer:
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): A Beis ha'Pras makes a Beis ha'Pras (Rashi - in all four directions; Tosfos - in whichever direction it was plowed, without limit.
Question: (According to Chachamim,) how far does Beis ha'Pras extend? (In the text of Shitah Mekubetzes, Chachamim explicitly said that Beis ha'Pras does not make Beis ha'Pras. The question is according to R. Eliezer.)
Answer (Rav Dimi): Three fields become Beis ha'Pras (the field in which the Mes was lost, and the adjacent fields in the two directions in which the field is normally plowed, north-south or east-west). The adjacent fields become Beis ha'Pras, until the (standard) length of a furrow.
A furrow is 100 Amos;
(Beraisa): If a grave was plowed, it makes a Beis ha'Pras up to the length of a furrow, 100 Amos.