BERACHOS OVER THE LULAV AND SUKAH (cont.)
Question: How can Rabah bar bar Chanah hold that, according to R. Yochanan, the Berachah over Lulav is one day and over Sukah is seven, given that we have a Beraisa which teaches the opposite!?
Upon making one's own Lulav one recites Shehechiyanu, and Al Netilas Lulav each day of its use.
Upon making one's own Sukah one recites Shehechiyanu, and Leshev ba'Sukah is recited once.
Question: This contradicts Rabah bar bar Chanah both regarding Lulav and Sukah!
Answer: The problem of Lulav may be addressed by assuming that the Beraisa is speaking in the Mikdash (Lulav all seven days is d'Oraisa).
Question: But Sukah remains a contradiction!?
Answer: The Berachah over Sukah is a Machlokes Tanaim.
(Rebbi): One recited the Berachah over Tefilin each time during the day one dons them (even though the Chiyuv has not been interrupted, like Sukah).
(Rabanan): Only one Berachah (in the morning).
Abaye decided in favor of Rebbi and Rava in favor of Rabanan.
Mari b.bas Shmuel reported that Rava acted in accordance with Rebbi (Berachah each time).
We act in accordance with Rebbi regarding Sukah.
Mar Zutra reported that R. Papi acted like Rebbi and that the students of R. Ashi's Yeshiva recited a Berachah each time they felt (checked) their Tefilin.
(R. Yehudah citing Shmuel): The Berachah over Lulav is recited daily.
(R. Yehoshua b. Levi): Only the first day (d'Oraisa outside the Mikdash) gets a Berachah, after which it is Mitzvas Zekeinim (no Berachah).
(R. Yitzchak): Every day is Mitzvas Zekeinim.
Question: But the first day is d'Oraisa!?
Answer: We mean, except the first day.
Question: Then R. Yitzchak is the same as R. Yehosua b. Levi (yet he appears to be stating a differing opinion)!?
Answer: He meant to support R. Yehoshua b. Levi.
Rav also holds (like Shmuel) that the Berachah is daily.
This is learned from R. Chiya citing Rav regarding Neiros Chanukah.
We may infer from Chanukah which is d'Rabanan to the remaining days of Lulav.
(R. Yirmiyah): If one does not light Neiros Chanukah he makes a Berachah when seeing the Neiros of another Jew.
(R. Yehudah): The details of such Berachos.
Question: What Berachah does he make?
Answer: Asher...Tzivanu LeHadlik Ner Shel Chanukah.
Question: Where did Hash-m command this?
Answer: The command to listen to the Chachamim (Lo Sasur).
Answer (R. Nachman b. Yitzchak): From She'al Avichah.
(R. Nachman b. Yitzchak): Rav taught the ruling regarding Lulav explicitly (no need to infer it from Chanukah).
SHE'HECHEYANU ON THE SUKAH
One who makes a Sukah recites Shehechiyanu.
One who uses his Sukah recited Leshev ba'Sukah.
If there is something to add or modify to an existing Sukah he recited Shehechiyanu at that time; otherwise it waits until the first use (two Berachos then).
(R. Ashi): R. Kehana would recite both over Kidush.
THE BERACHAH OVER SIMULTANEOUS MITZVOS
When performing several Mitzvos together one recites Al ha'Mitzvos.
(R. Yehudah): One recites a Berachah over each one.
(R. Zeira or R. Chanina b. Papa): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah.
Question: What is R. Yehudah's rationale?
Answer: The Pasuk, Baruch Hash-m Yom Yom (as analyzed).
OTHER TEACHINGS OF R. ZEIRA OR R. CHANINA BAR PAPA
Hash-m is unlike man regarding filling an empty vessel versus filling a full one.
One who is accustomed to listening (is full) hears more (may be further filled) as indicated by the Pasuk.
Alternately, one who reviews what he has learned hears news, unlike one who gives up on reviewing (which is considered Mefaneh Libo L'Vatalah - see Rashi).
EATING THE ESROG AFTER COMPLETING THE MITZVAH
(R. Yochanan): The Esrog remains prohibited the entire seventh day, and is permitted on the eighth, whereas Sukah remains prohibited even on the eighth day.
(Resh Lakish): Esrog is permitted even on the seventh.
Question: What is their Machlokes?
Answer: Resh Lakish holds that the Esrog is only designated for its Mitzvah; R. Yochanan holds that the designation applies to the whole day.
Question (Resh Lakish to R. Yochanan): But our Mishnah allows eating the Esrog of the children, and, presumably, those of the adults, as well!?
Answer: No, only those of the children (see Rashi).
Alternate rendition of the above steps: Question (R. Yochanan to Resh Lakish): But our Mishnah only permits the Esrogim of children, presumably those of the adults would be prohibited!?
Answer: No, those of the adults are permitted, and those of children are mentioned only as a common illustration.
Question (R. Papa): Why is Sukah (according to R. Yochanan) different than Esrog?
Answer (Abaye): Unlike Esrog, Sukah has use Bein ha'Shemashos and thus becomes Muktzeh all day.
(Levi): The Esrog is indeed Muktzeh all of the eighth day (like Sukah), since it was Muktzeh Bein ha'Shemashos, given the doubt regarding the day.
(Avuha d'Shmuel): The Esrog is permitted on the eighth.
Avuha d'Shmuel later rescinded his position in favor of Levi.
However, R. Zeira put forth the original view of Avuha d'Shmuel (only prohibiting on the seventh).
TWO MORE TEACHINGS OF R. ZEIRA
One should not give the Minim to a minor before fulfilling one's Mitzvah on the first day (since they may acquire it but cannot give it back).
One should fulfill one's promises to a child lest they learn to falsify.
THE MACHLOKES R. YOCHANAN AND RESH LAKISH (resumed)
Rav and R. Asi argue over the same question (if the Esrog is Muktzeh for its Mitzvah or for the day).
(R. Asi): If one designates an Esrog for each day of Sukos, it may be eaten right after the Mitzvah.
(Rav): It may be eaten only the next day.
R. Asi learns like Resh Lakish and Rav like R. Yochanan.
AN ESROG ON THE EIGHTH DAY OUTSIDE OF ERETZ YISRAEL
Question: What is the status of the Esrog outside of Eretz Yisrael on the eighth day?
Answer (Abaye): It is prohibited, given the doubt.
Answer (Mereimar): It is permitted, in spite the doubt.
After reporting differing practices, the Halachah is like Abaye.
THE SUKAH ON THE EIGHTH DAY OUTSIDE OF ERETZ YISRAEL
(Rav, cited by R. Yehudah bar R. Shmuel b. Shilas): While one must reside in the Sukah on the eighth (which may be the seventh) day, one mentions Shemini Atzeres in his Tefilos, not Sukos.
(R. Yochanan): It is the eighth day in all regards.
They are arguing over reciting a Berachah over the Sukah on the eighth day (if it is the eighth in all regards then a Berachah is not said), but they both agree that one must reside in the Sukah on the eighth day.