[23a - 45 lines; 23b - 12 lines]
1a)[line 1]שינטל האילןSHE'YINATEL HA'ILAN- that were the tree to be removed
b)[line 1]ויכולה לעמוד בפני עצמהV'YECHOLAH LA'AMOD BI'FNEI ATZMAH- the Sechach would remain in place
2)[line 7]נשבהNASHVAH- blew
3a)[line 10]רוח מצויה דיבשהRU'ACH METZUYAH D'YABASHAH- an average-strength land wind
b)[line 11]שאינה מצויה דיבשהSHE'EINAH METZUYAH D'YABASHAH- an above average-strength land [wind] (which is equal to an average-strength sea wind)
4)[line 24]סוכה שאינה ראויה לשבעה לא שמה סוכהSUKAH SHE'EINAH RE'UYAH L'SHIV'AH LO SHMAH SUKAH- any Sukah that is unusable for all seven days of Sukos [such as this one, which may not be entered on Yom Tov mid'Rabanan] is not a Sukah with which one may fulfill his Mitzvah through
5)[line 26]מחזא חזיאMECHZA CHAZYA- is fit [for all seven days]
6)[line 30]לחי למבויLECHI L'MAVOY- see Background to 22:19
7)[line 30]פסין לביראותPASIN L'BEIRA'OS
(a)Chazal issued various lenient rulings in order to facilitate an easier fulfillment of the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel. This Mitzvah entails traveling to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos. One of these rulings is known as Pasei Bira'os (planks of the springs) or Deyomdin (a contraction of Deyo Amudim - two planks).
(b)A well that is at least four Tefachim wide by four Tefachim long by ten Tefachim deep is a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain). If this well is located in a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain), Torah law states that on Shabbos, one may not draw water from it and then bring the water into the Reshus ha'Rabim. The only way in which one would be able to drink from the water in the well would be to enter the interior of the well and drink it there. This would pose a difficulty for those who were traveling to Yerushalayim and were encamped upon the road for Shabbos along their way.
(c)The Chachamim ruled that one may designate an area surrounding the well as a Reshus ha'Yachid, thereby allowing the drawing of water into that area, in the following manner. In each corner of the area one must place an L-shaped corner piece comprised of two Amah-wide planks set at right angles to each other. The two Amah-long extensions at the ends of each of the four sides constitute a partition according to Torah law, with the openings between them considered doorways (TOSFOS Eruvin 17b DH Osin). Rebbi Meir maintains that the gap between these planks must not exceed ten Amos, while Rebbi Yehudah rules that they may be up to thirteen and one-third Amos wide. Although mid'Rabanan this will not generally suffice to act as a Mechitzah (partition) for the purposes of designating different domains on Shabbos, they made an exception in this case for Olei Regalim. As long as most of a person or animal is within these Pasim, he may drink from the water drawn from the well and placed upon the ground.
8)[line 31]גולל לקברGOLEL L'KEVER (GOLEL V'DOFEK)
(a)A Golel and a Dofek are items directly involved with human burial. Their exact identity is the subject of a disagreement between the Rishonim:
1.A Golel is the wooden or stone slab that serves as a cover of a coffin, whereas "Dofek" is a term referring to the sides of the coffin (upon which the Golel "knocks" - "Dofek") (RASHI, TOSFOS DH v'Lo Golel, ARUCH Erech Gelal, OR ZARU'A 2:424).
2.A Golel is a Matzevah -- a stone lain [horizontally] above a grave as a marker. Two smaller stones are placed at its foot and head. These are each called "Dofek" (RABEINU TAM, cited in Tosfos Kesuvos 4b DH Ad she'Yisasem ha'Golel).
3.These terms refer to items used when people are interred in burial vaults (a hole dug into the side of a chamber) rather than graves. The large stone or log used to block the entrance to the vault is a Golel (as it must be "rolled" - "Niglal" - into place). The wedge used to keep the Golel in place is the Dofek. (OR ZARU'A 2:424, quoting Rav Moshe)
(b)Both the Golel and Dofek have the status of Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, just like the corpse itself. One who comes into contact with them (Maga) or is under the same roof (Ohel) becomes an Av ha'Tum'ah. Rebbi Eliezer maintains that one who carries them (Masa) becomes Tamei as well (Ohalos 2:4; see RASHASH to RASHI DH v'Lo Golel).
9)[line 32]גיטי נשיםGITEI NASHIM
(a)If one wishes to divorce his wife, he must write a Get (divorce document) and place it in her hand or possession (Devarim 24:1).
(b)A Get may be written upon any surface, such as parchment, paper, pottery, leaves (that will remain fresh), or even upon the hand of a slave or the horn of a live cow (Gitin 21b; RAMBAM Hilchos Gerushin 4:3). Rebbi Yosi ha'Gelili maintains that a Get may not be written upon any part of a live person or animal; the Halachah, however, does not follow this opinion.
10)[line 33]שמא תמותSHEMA TAMUS- [it is a Rabbinic decree since the animal] may die [and keel over, in which case the Sukah will no longer have the requisite ten Tefachim of height in its wall]
11a)[line 34]פיל קשורPIL KASHUR- a bound elephant
b)[line 40]בהמה קשורהBEHEMAH KESHURAH- a bound animal [that is not ten Tefachim wide]
12)[line 43]רווחא דביני ביניRAVCHA D'BEINI BEINI- the distance between the ground and the belly of the animal
13)[line 43]דעביד ליה בהוצא ודפנאD'AVID LEI B'HUTZA V'DAFNA- that he filled it in with [a screen woven from] palm fronds (Hutza) and laurel branches (Dafna; O.F. lorier - laurel)
14)[line 44]רבעהRAV'AH- it will crouch
15)[line 44]דמתיחה באשלי מלעילD'MESICHAH B'ASHLEI MIL'EIL- that he [secured it in an upright position through] ropes tied from above
16)[line 1]כווצאKAVTZA- it shrinks
(a)Once a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:12; Devarim 18:4). Although the Torah does not specify how much to give, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop. Until Terumah and Ma'asros have been properly separated, the produce is termed "Tevel" and may not be eaten. See below, entry #22.
(b)Terumah must be eaten by Kohanim or their wives, unmarried daughters, and Nochri slaves, when they are Tehorim. If the wife of a Kohen is not herself the daughter of a Kohen, she may eat Terumah only as long as her husband or at least one of their sons is alive (Vayikra 22:11, Bamidbar 18:11; see Nidah 44a).
18)[line 5]הרי זה גיטיך שעה אחת קודם מיתתיHAREI ZEH GITEICH SHA'AH ACHAS KODEM MISASI- One who wishes to keep his wife from a position in which she requires either Yibum or Chalitzah ("Zikah"; see Background to Yoma 13:18) may give his wife a conditional Get. In it he states that the Get should take effect one moment ("Sha'ah") before his death, so that she will be a divorcee by the time that he has passed away.
19)[line 6]אסורה לאכול בתרומה מידASURAH LE'ECHOL B'TERUMAH MIYAD- [if he who wrote such a Get is a Kohen, his wife is not the daughter of a Kohen, and they have no living children, then] she may not eat Terumah beginning immediately [since every moment may be that just prior to his death]
(a)The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and settled them in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions (Melachim II 17:24-41). Tana'im disagree as to whether their conversion was an honest and valid one ("Gerei Emes"), or whether it was prompted only by feelings of self-preservation and the Kusim remained Nochrim ("Gerei Arayos" -- lit. "converts of the lions").
(b)After the times of the Mishnah, they were found worshipping an image of a dove. At that point, the Chachamim unanimously agreed that they had the status of Nochrim (Chulin 6a).
21)[line 9]שני לוגין שאני עתיד להפרישSHNEI LUGIN SHE'ANI ASID L'HAFRISH - two Log [of wine] that I will separate in the future (YESH BEREIRAH / EIN BEREIRAH)
(a)In numerous places in Shas we find arguments among the Tana'im/Amora'im as to whether "Yesh Bereirah" (i.e. Bereirah works) or "Ein Bereirah" (i.e. Bereirah doesn't work). Bereirah means making the effect of one's action contingent retroactively upon future events. Examples of this are: buying or selling an object on the condition that it rains the following day, or that the object of the sale will remain undefined until it is selected the following day. "Ein Bereirah" means that such a stipulation does not work. An action cannot be contingent on a future event. The Ran (Nedarim 45b) explains this opinion with the following logic : "It is not proper for something to take effect when upon what it will take effect is still in question." (See Insights to Chulin 15:2.) "Yesh Bereirah" means that such a stipulation does work.
(b)When the action is contingent on a past event, there is no question that the action works - even if the people involved in the action are not aware as to whether the past event did or did not take place. Example: If a person makes two Eruvei Techumin before sundown on Erev Shabbos, places them on opposite sides of his city, and declares, "If my Rebbi is presently staying in the village to the East, I would like the Eastern Eruv to work; if not, I would like the Western Eruv to work." The man making the Eruv may not know where his Rebbi is - but when he finds out, the Eruv will have taken effect on the side that he stipulated ("Kevar Ba Chacham" - see Chulin 14b).
(c)We find dozens of instances in the Gemara where a person may perform an action "on the condition that..." (b'Tenai). For example, a man may buy/sell an object or divorce his wife on the condition that the other party pays/does whatever the first party specifies. If the condition is not kept in the future, the sale/divorce is annulled. This situation is not called Bereirah - see Insights to Eruvin 36b.
(d)Halachically, most Poskim conclude (based on Beitzah 38a) that regarding biblical questions (mid'Oraisa), we assume that Bereirah does not work (l'Chumrah), but in regards to Rabbinical questions (mid'Rabanan), we rely on Bereirah (l'Kulah).
(e)According to Rebbi Meir, one may designate Terumah and Ma'asros within a barrel of wine in order to allow him to drink from it immediately. When he later separates the amount of wine that he designated as Terumah or Ma'aser, Bereirah states that all along this was the Terumah or Ma'aser and what he drank earlier was wine from which Terumah and Ma'asros had been separated. Rebbi Meir illustrates this with an example of a barrel containing one hundred Lugin of wine, from which two Lugin constitute one fiftieth of the total.
22)[line 11]מעשר ראשון... מעשר שניMA'ASER RISHON... MA'ASER SHENI
(a)Once Terumah (see above, entry #17) is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi (Bamidbar 18:21). The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:26).
(b)Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from the crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor (Devarim 14:28-29).
(c)During the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity. The various laws of Ma'aser Sheni are learned from the verses which begin, "Aser Te'aser Eis Kol Tevu'as Zar'echa..." (Devarim 14:22-27).
(d)If it is impractical to bring the actual food to Yerushalayim, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed with money. This money receives the status of Ma'aser Sheni, and is then brought to Yerushalayim. In Yerushalayim the money is used to buy food, which in turn receives the Kedushah of Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah in Yerushalayim.
(e)If the owner of the Ma'aser Sheni redeems his own Ma'aser, he must add a fifth of the total value (equal to a quarter of the original value) onto the money used; if someone else redeems it, he may do so with money equal to the value of the Ma'aser (Vayikra 27:30-31).
23)[last line]מיחלMEICHAL- a) [he should] redeem [the Ma'aser Sheni by transferring its Kedushah onto money, since one should remove whatever one is able to from the barrel without utilizing Bereirah] (from the word Chilul; RASHI); b) [he may] begin (from the word l'Haschil) (RABEINU GERSHOM to Me'ilah 22a)