1)

(a)What were they referring to overseas, when they spoke of a 'Galmudah'?

(b)What is 'Galmudah' the acronym of?

(c)How did Rebbi Elazar therefore explain the Pasuk in Iyov "Ki Adas Chenef Galmud"?

(d)And what does he say happens to such a community?

1)

(a)When overseas, they spoke of a 'Galmudah' - they were referring to a Nidah.

(b)'Galmudah' is the acronym of - 'Gemulah Dah (mi'Ba'alah' ('this woman is separated from her husband').

(c)Rebbi Elazar therefore explained the Pasuk "Ki Adas Chenef Galmud" to mean - that a community which is prone to flattery is disgusting (in the Eyes of Hash-m, like a Nidah is to a man).

(d)Such a community, he says - will ultimately be exiled (as the Pasuk writes in Yeshayah "v'Amarta bi'Levavecha ... va'Ani Shechulah v'Galmudah Golah v'Surah").

2)

(a)Rebbi Yirmiyahu bar Aba lists four groups who will not receive the Shechinah. Two of them are the group of mockers and the group of flatterers. He derives the third group from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Dover Shekarim Lo Yikon l'Neged Einav", and the fourth group from the Pasuk there "Ki Lo Keil Chafetz Resha Atah, Lo Yegurcha Ra". To Whom does "Ra" refer?

2)

(a)Rebbi Yirmeyahu bar Aba lists four groups who will not receive the Shechinah. Two of them are the group of mockers and the group of flatterers. He derives the third group from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Dover Shekarim Lo Yikon l'Neged Einav", and the fourth group from the Pasuk there "Ki Lo Keil Chafetz Resha Atah, Lo Yegurcha Ra" - with reference to the group of people who speak Lashon ha'Ra (because the Pasuk wrote there earlier "Ki Ein b'Fihu Nechonah").

HADRAN ALACH 'EILU NE'EMARIN'

PEREK MASHU'ACH MILCHAMAH

3)

(a)The Pasuk in Shoftim "v'Hayah k'Koravchem El ha'Milchamah v'Nigash ha'Kohen" is referring to the Mashu'ach Milchamah. What do we learn from the Pasuk there ...

1. ... "v'Diber El ha'Am"?

2. ... "v'Amar Aleihem Shema Yisrael ... Al Oyveichem"?

(b)What did Oded ha'Navi tell Pekach ben Remalyahu (King of Yisrael) after Yisrael had defeated Yehudah and taken captives?

(c)How did the king of Yisrael react to the Navi's instructions?

(d)Why should we not treat our enemies in the same way?

3)

(a)The Pasuk in Shoftim "v'Hayah k'Koravchem El ha'Milchamah v'Nigash ha'Kohen" is referring to the Mashu'ach Milchamah. We learn from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "v'Diber El ha'Am" - that he had to speak in Lashon ha'Kodesh (as will be explained later).

2. ... "v'Amar Aleihem Shema Yisrael ... Al Oyveichem - that the enemies with whom we are about to fight are real enemies and must be treated without mercy in battle, unlike the way we treat our fellow Jews in the case of a civil war).

(b)After Yisrael had defeated Yehudah and taken captives, Oded ha'Navi told Pekach ben Remalyahu (King of Yisrael) - that rather than retain them as slaves, as had been their intention, they should send them home.

(c)Pekach did indeed obey the Navi's instructions - even going as far as to cloth and feed them and return them to good shape before accompanying them to Yericho and returning home.

(d)W should not treat our enemies in the same way - because that is not the way they would treat us if we were to fall into their hands.

4)

(a)The Pasuk there "Al Yeirach Levavchem, Al Tir'u v'Al Tachpezu, v'Al Ta'artzu Mipneihem" refers to the various war-cries and noises which the armies of those days used to perform in an effort to instill fear into their enemies. What is the significance of the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Ki Hash-m Elokeichen ha'Holech Imachem"?

2. ... "Ki Hash-m Elokeichem b'Kirbechem"? What is the difference between our enemies and ourselves in this regard?

4)

(a)The Pasuk there "Al Yeirach Levavchem, Al Tir'u v'Al Tachpezu, v'Al Ta'artzu Mipneihem" refers to the various war-cries and noises which the armies of those days used to perform in an effort to instill fear into their enemies. The significance of the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Ki Hash-m Elokeichen ha'Holech Imachem" - is to strengthen the soldiers' faith, to remind them that whereas their enemies would go into battle on the strength of their heroes and gods, Yisrael go into battle with the strength of Hash-m.

2. ... "Ki Hash-m Elokeichem b'Kirbechem" - (which refers to the Aron which traveled with them to war) is to remind them that they had the strength of the Torah (which is synonymous with that of Hash-m) on their side.

5)

(a)We just quoted the Pasuk "v'Nigash ha'Kohen v'Diber El ha'Am", which we interpret in light of the Pasuk "v'Dibru ha'Shotrim". How does this latter Pasuk explain the former one?

(b)How do we then know that the Pasuk is referring to the Mashu'ach Milchamah and not ...

1. ... the Kohen Gadol himself?

2. ... the Sgan Kohen Gadol?

(c)Seeing as the king is superior to the Kohen Gadol, why can the Pasuk not refer to the Kohen Gadol?

(d)The reason that the Mashu'ach Milchamah begins his words with "Shema Yisrael" is contained in a statement made by Rebbi Yochanan in the name of Rebbi Shimon ben Yochai. What did he say?

5)

(a)We just quoted the Pasuk "v'Nigash ha'Kohen v'Diber El ha'Am" which we interpret in light of the Pasuk "v'Dibru ha'Shotrim". We learn from this latter Pasuk - that it is not an ordinary Kohen who makes the announcements, but the Mashu'ach Milchamah, because, just like the officers have been appointed to a high position, so too, is the Pasuk talking about a Kohen who has been appointed to a high position in the hierarchy of the Kehunah.

(b)We know that the Pasuk is referring to the Mashu'ach Milchamah and not ...

1. ... to the Kohen Gadol himself - because, like an officer, he has someone who is above him, whereas a Kohen Gadol does not.

2. ... the Sgan Kohen Gadol - because a Sgan Kohen Gadol only acts in reserve, in case the Kohen Gadol becomes unfit, but does actually serve in that capacity.

(c)Despite the fact that the king is superior to the Kohen Gadol, the Pasuk cannot be referring to the Kohen Gadol - because he is not his superior in his capacity as Kohen (like the general is to the officer and the Kohen Gadol to the Mashu'ach Milchamah).

(d)The reason that the Mashu'ach Milchamah begins his words with "Shema Yisrael" is contained in a statement made by Rebbi Yochanan in the name of Rebbi Shimon ben Yochai - who quoted Hash-m as saying that even if the only merit of Klal Yisrael is the recitation of the Shema morning and evening, that will suffice to stop them from defeat at the hand of their enemies.

6)

(a)The Mashu'ach Milchamah spoke twice to the soldiers, once on the border (before the battle commenced), and once on the battlefield. What did he announce ...

1. ... on the border?

2. ... on the battlefield?

(b)The four expressions that we quoted in our Mishnah corresponded to the four things that the enemy used to do. What is the meaning of ...

1. ... 'Magifin'?

2. ... 'Meri'in'?

3. ... 'Tzevachin'?

4. ... 'Romsin'?

(c)Why are the clanging of the enemies swords and pounding of their nailed boots not counted?

6)

(a)The Mashu'ach Milchamah spoke twice to the soldiers, once on the border (before the battle commenced), and once on the battlefield. He announced ...

1. ... on the border - that those who are expected to return from the battle-front (i.e. someone who had built a house and not consecrated it, who had planted a vineyard and not yet brought Neta Reva'i (to Yerushalayim in the fourth year), who had betrothed a woman and not married her, or someone who was scared-stiff of war).

2. ... on the battlefield - that one should not be afraid or broken-hearted, when the enemy employs their scare-tactics.

(b)The four expressions that we quoted in our Mishnah corresponded to the four things that the enemy used to do. The meaning of ...

1. ... 'Magifin' is - clashing their shields.

2. ... 'Meri'in' is - blowing their trumpets.

3. ... 'Tzevachin' is - war cries.

4. ... 'Romsin' is - when the enemy make their horses prance around, causing them to stamp their hoofs and neigh.

(c)The clanging of the enemies swords and pounding of their nailed boots are not counted - because these were performed in the course of war and not as scare tactics.

42b----------------------------------------42b

7)

(a)To whom was Golyas referring when, in the Pasuk in Shmuel, he declared "Beru Lachem Ish v'Yered Elai"?

(b)How does Rebbi Yochanan explain his name in that light?

(c)What does all this have to do with the Pasuk there "v'David ben Ish Efrati"?

7)

(a)When, in the Pasuk in Shmuel, Golyas declared "Beru Lachem Ish v'Yered Elai" - he was referring to Hash-m (the Ish Milchamah), as if he was issuing Him a challenge.

(b)That explains his name, says Rebbi Yochanan - which is a derivative of 'Giluy Panim' (meaning Chutzpah, because he had the temerity to challenge Hash-m).

(c)That explains why Hash-m sent His champion "v'David ben Ish Efrati" (Midah Keneged Midah).

8)

(a)How did Golyas inadvertently hint at his own downfall when he said ...

1. ... "Beru Lachem Ish v'Yered Elai"?

2. ... "Im Yuchal Lehilachem Iti v'Hikani"?

3. ... "ha'Kelev Anochi Ki Atah Ba Elai b'Maklos"?

(b)But did David not also begin his response with "Atah Ba Elai b'Cherev u've'Chanis u've'Chidon" (seemingly intimating his own defeat)?

(c)How does Rebbi Yochanan explain the significance of the Pasuk "va'Yigash ha'Pelishti Hashkem v'Ha'arev"?

(d)And to what does he attribute Golyas' merit to make his stand for forty days?

8)

(a)Golyas inadvertently hinted at his own downfall, says Rebbi Yochanan in the name of Rebbi Meir, when he said ...

1. ... "Beru Lachem Ish v'Yered Elai" - (rather than "va'Yilachem Iti"), implying that David would in fact, come and defeat him (see also Agados Maharsha).

2. ... "Im Yuchal Lehilachem Iti v'Hikani" - because this implies that whoever will accept the challenge will defeat him (despite the fact that he continued "v'Im Ani Uchal Lo v'Hikisiv").

3. ... "ha'Kelev Anochi Ki Atah Ba Elai b'Maklos" - because this implies that he would end up being beaten by David.

(b)Granted that David too, began his response with "Atah Ba Elai b'Cherev u've'Chanis u've'Chidon" - but he continued 'va'Anochi Ba Eilecha b'Shem Hash-m Tzeva'kos ... " (emphasizing the contrast between the inadequacy of Golyas and Hash-m's omnipotence, but in no way intimating his own defeat).

(c)Rebbi Yochanan explains that the Pasuk "va'Yigash ha'Pelishti Hashkem v'Ha'arev" - hints to the fact that Golyas tried to prevent Yisrael from reciting the Shema each morning and evening, says.

(d)He also attribute Golyas' merit to make his stand for forty days - to the forty days delay before the Torah was given (from the sixth of Sivan until Shiv'ah-Asar b'Tamuz. See also Agados Maharsha).

9)

(a)According to Rav, the Pasuk refers to Golyas as "Ish ha'Beinayim", because he was 'Mevuneh mi'Kol Mum' (perfectly built, free of blemish) How does Shmuel explain it?

(b)In the Beis-ha'Midrash of Rebbi Shilo, they ascribed it to the fact that he was shaped like a building. What does Rebbi Yochanan mean when he explains 'Bar Me'ah Papi v'Chada Na'ani'?

(c)And his name was Golyas because he hailed from Gas. How does the Beraisa, quoted by Rav Yosef, explain 'Gas' metaphorically?

(d)His mother is sometimes called Orpah and sometimes, Harafah. Rav and Shmuel argue over this. One of them says that her real name was Harafah, and she was called Orpah because she made herself Hefker for men to have relations with her unnaturally (face to back of neck [from the word 'Oref', meaning the back of a neck]). What does the other one say? What are 'Harifos'?

9)

(a)According to Rav, the Pasuk refers to Golyas as "Ish ha'Beinayim", because he was 'Mevuneh mi'Kol Mum' (perfectly built, free of blemish). According to Shmuel - it was because, out of the four siblings, he was neither the tallest, nor the smallest, but in between.

(b)In the Beis-ha'Midrash of Rebbi Shilo, they ascribed it to the fact that he was shaped like a building. When Rebbi Yochanan says 'Bar Me'ah Papi v'Chada Na'ani', he means that he came from between many fathers, because he was conceived the night after Orpah left Naomi and returned to her father's house, a night on which many men were intimate with her (as Chazal have taught).

(c)And his name was Golyas because he hailed from Gas. The Beraisa, quoted by Rav Yosef however, explains 'Gas' metaphorically - to mean that many men threshed her like a wine-press.

(d)His mother is sometimes called Orpah and sometimes, Harafah. Rav and Shmuel argue over this. One of them says that her real name was Harafah, and that she was sometimes called Orpah because she made herself Hefker for men to have relations with her unnaturally (face to back of neck [from the word 'Oref', meaning the back of a neck]). The other one says - that her real name was Orpah, and that she was sometimes called Harafah because the men threshed her like beaten wheat ('Harifos', as we find in Shmuel and in Mishlei).

10)

(a)What does Rav Chisda say about Saf, Madon, Golyas and Yishbi b'Nov? What did all have in common ...

1. ... in their life-time?

2. ... in their death?

(b)The Pasuk writes "va'Tishak Orpah la'Chamosah, v'Rus Davkah Bah". What was Hash-m's response to that?

(c)To what merit does Rava attribute Orpah's four mighty sons?

10)

(a)Rav Chisda says that Saf, Madon, Golyas and Yishbi b'Nov - were all ...

1. ... sons of Orpah.

2. ... killed by David or his servants.

(b)The Pasuk writes "va'Tishak Orpah la'Chamosah, v'Rus Davkah Bah" - to which Hash-m responded 'Let the sons of the kissed one come and fall into hands of the sons of the one who cleaved'.

(c)Rava attributes Orpah's mighty sons - to the four tears, one tear from each eye, that she shed when she cried twice prior to her parting from Naomi.

11)

(a)How does Rebbi Elazar explain the fact that although we read the Pasuk in Shmuel (in connection with Golyas) it "v'Etz Chanisa", it is written "v'Cheitz Chaniso"?

(b)Why does the Pasuk take the trouble to describe his strength at all?

(c)Rav and Shmuel argue over the fact that the hero of Amon is once referred to as Shovach, and once, as Shofach. According to ...

1. ... one of them, his real name was 'Shofach'. Why does the Navi then refer to him 'Shovach'?

2. ... the other one, his real name was Shovach. Then why does the Navi refer to him as 'Shofach'?

11)

(a)we read the Pasuk in Shmuel (in connection with Golyas) it "v'Etz Chanisa", it is written "v'Cheitz Chaniso" Rebbi Elazar explains - that "Cheitz" is a derivative of 'Chatzi', and hints that the Pasuk has not even described half of Golyas strength.

(b)The Pasuk takes the trouble to describe his strength at least in part - to teach us David ha'Melech's bravery, that despite his might, he took him on, in defense of the honor of Hash-m and Yisrael.

(c)Rav and Shmuel argue over the fact that the hero of Amon is once referred to as Shovach, and once, as Shofach. According to ...

1. ... one of them, his real name was 'Shofach', and the Navi refers to him as 'Shovach' - because he was shaped like a dove-cot.

2. ... the other one - his real name was Shovach, and the Pasuk sometimes calls him as 'Shofach' - because whoever saw him, was so gripped with terror that he sullied himself.

12)

(a)Regarding the soldiers of Nevuchadnetzar, the Pasuk writes in Yirmiyahu "Ashpaso k'Kever Pasu'ach Kulam Giborim". Rav or Shmuel (some say Rebbi Ami or Rebbi Asi) argue over this. One of them explains that when one of the soldiers would shoot an arrow, it would leave piles of corpses. How does the other one explain it?

(b)How do we know that this was not due to illness?

(c)We can extrapolate from the fact that we need to answer this - that under normal circumstances, excessive excrement is considered an illness. What are the ramifications of this statement?

12)

(a)Regarding the soldiers of Nevuchadnetzar, the Pasuk writes in Yirmiyahu "Ashpaso k'Kever Pasu'ach Kulam Giborim". Rav or Shmuel (some say Rebbi Ami or Rebbi Asi) argue over this. One of them explains that when one of the soldiers would shoot an arrow, it would leave piles of corpses. According to the other - the Pasuk is referring to their capacity in the sphere of eating. They were able to eat so much he explains, that they would leave piles of excrement.

(b)We know that this was not due to illness - because the Pasuk writes "Kulam Giborim".

(c)We can extrapolate from the fact that we need to answer this that under normal circumstances, excessive excrement is considered an illness. The ramifications of this statement are - that a person who does experience excessive excrement, should Daven for a speedy recovery.

13)

(a)Rebbi Ami and Rebbi Asi argue over the Pasuk in Mishlei "Da'agah b'Lev Ish Yasichenah. One of them explains 'Yasichenah mi'Libo' (that he should remove what is troubling him from his heart). How does the other one explain it?

(b)What was the Mashu'ach Milchamah referring to when he told the soldiers that they were unique, because Hash-m their G-d went with them into battle?

13)

(a)Rebbi Ami and Rebbi Asi argue over the Pasuk in Mishlei "Da'agah b'Lev Ish Yasichenah. One of them explains 'Yasichenah mi'Libo' (that he should remove what is troubling him from his heart). The other one explains it as - 'Yasichenah la'Acheirim' (he should speak it out to others).

(b)When the Mashu'ach Milchamah told the soldiers that they were unique, because Hash-m their G-d went with them into battle - he was referring to the four-letter Name of Hash-m as well as His substitute Names, which were placed in the Aron that went to war with them.

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