1)

(a)Rav Yitzchak stated above that Yehudah, who sanctified Hash-m's Name in public, merited that his name contained the four letters of the Name of Hash-m. Yehudah himself did so by confessing to his role in the episode with Tamar, as we learned in the first Perek. In what way did his tribe take their cue from him?

(b)This is according to the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah. According to Rebbi Meir, Yehudah was not the first tribe to jump into the sea at all. What do he learn from the Pasuk in Tehilim ...

1. ... "Sham Binyamin Tza'ir Rodeim"?

2. ... "Sarei Yehudah Rigmasam"?

3. ... "u'Vein Keseifav Shachein"?

1)

(a)Rav Yitzchak stated above that Yehudah, who sanctified Hash-m's Name in public, merited that his name contained the four letters of the Name of Hash-m. Yehudah himself did so by confessing to his role in the episode with Tamar, as we learned in the first Perek. His tribe took their cue from him - when, after the tribes had been vying with each other as to who should be the first to jump into the Reed Sea, Nachshon ben Aminadav took the initiative and jumped in first.

(b)This is according to the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah. According to Rebbi Meir, Yehudah was not the first tribe to jump into the Sea at all. He learns from the Pasuk in Tehilim ...

1. ... "Sham Binyamin Tza'ir Rodeim" - that Binyamin, the youngest of the tribes, was the first to jump into the sea

2. ... "Sarei Yehudah Rigmasam" - that the princes of Yehudah threw stones at them in their frustration.

3. ... "u'Vein Keseifav Shachein" - that, as a reward, the holiest section of the Beis ha'Mikdash, which housed the Shechinah, was built in Binyamin's portion.

2)

(a)According to Rebbi Yehudah, who said "Hoshi'eini Elokim Ki Ba'u Mayim Ad Nafesh ... " (Tehilim)?

(b)What was Moshe doing during that time?

(c)What did Hash-m reply when Moshe asked him what he needs to do if not to Daven?

(d)What is the connection between the above episode and the Pesukim in Hallel "Hayesah Yehudah l'Kodsho Yisrael Mamshelosav. ha'Yam Ra'ah va'Yonos ... ", according to Rebbi Yehudah?

2)

(a)According to Rebbi Yehudah - Nachshon ben Aminadav said "Hoshi'eini Elokim Ki Ba'u Mayim ad Nafesh ... ".

(b)During that time - Moshe was Davening.

(c)When Moshe asked Hash-m what he needs to do if not to Daven, He replied - 'to order the people to travel into the sea and to raise his staff and split it'.

(d)The connection between the above episode and the Pesukim in Hallel "Hayesah Yehudah l'Kodsho Yisrael Mamshelosav. ha'Yam Ra'ah va'Yonos ... " is - that on account of Yehudah's actions, he merited Malchus.

3)

(a)The Pasuk in Ki Savo implies that the tribe of Levi climbed mount Gerizim. What does the Pasuk in Yehoshua say?

(b)According to Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov, it was the elders of Levi who climbed the mountain, whilst the remainder of the tribe remained below with the Aron. Rebbi Yoshiyah disagrees. What does he say?

(c)Rebbi, following the Pasuk in Yehoshua, maintains that nobody actually climbed either mountain at all. How does he explain the Pasuk in Ki Savo "Eleh Ya'amdu Levarech Es ha'Am Al Har Gerizim"?

(d)What does Rebbi learn from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "v'Nasata Al ha'Ma'araches Levonah Zakah"?

2. ... "v'Sakosa Al ha'Aron Es ha'Paroches"?

3)

(a)The Pasuk in Ki Savo implies that the tribe of Levi climbed mount Gerizim, whereas the Pasuk in Yehoshua says - that the Kohanim and the Leviyim surrounded the Aron in the valley.

(b)According to Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov, it was the elders of Levi who climbed the mountain, whilst the remainder of the tribe remained below with the Aron. Whereas Rebbi Yoshiyah explains - that all those who were fit to serve (between the ages of thirty and fifty), remained in the valley, and it was those who were not who ascended the mountain.

(c)Following the Pasuk in Yehoshua, Rebbi maintains that nobody actually climbed either mountain at all. According to him, the Pasuk "Eleh Ya'amdu Levarech Es ha'Am Al Har Gerizim" - means (not on Har Gerizim, but) 'next to it'.

(d)Rebbi learns from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "v'Nasata Al ha'Ma'araches Levonah Zakah" - that the Kohen would place the frankincense (not on top of the row of breads, but) next to it.

2. ... "v'Sakosa Al ha'Aron Es ha'Paroches" - that the Paroches (the dividing curtain) should hang next to the Aron (which indeed it must, seeing as it hung vertically and not horizontally).

37b----------------------------------------37b

4)

(a)The Beraisa says (regarding the Berachos and the Kelalos) 'Baruch bi'Klal, Baruch bi'Prat, Arur bi'Klal, Arur bi'Prat'. What is the Tana referring to when he says ...

1. ... 'Klal'?

2. ... 'Prat'?

(b)Then what is he actually saying?

(c)And what does he mean when he adds 'li'Lemod, u'Lelamed, li'Shemor v'La'asos'?

(d)What is then the total number of covenants that accompanies each of the Mitzvos at this point?

4)

(a)The Beraisa says (regarding the Berachos and the Kelalos) 'Baruch bi'Klal, Baruch bi'Prat, Arur bi'Klal, Arur bi'Prat'. When he says ...

1. ... 'Klal' - he is referring to the Pasuk in Ki Savo "Baruch Asher Yakim Es Divrei ha'Torah ha'Zos", which incorporates all the other Berachos mentioned there.

2. ... 'Prat' - he refers to each of the other eleven Pesukim of 'Baruch'.

(b)What he is actually saying is - that four covenants were made at Har Gerizim and Har Eival, two regarding the blessings and two regarding the curses.

(c)And when he adds 'li'Lemod, u'Lelamed, li'Shemor v'La'asos', he means - that, based on the Pesukim "u'Lemad'tem Osam, u'Shemartem La'asosam" and "v'Limadtem Osam Es Beneichem", each of the Taryag Mitzvos comprises these four obligations.

(d)Consequently, the total number of covenants that accompanies each of the Mitzvos at this point is - sixteen, four for 'li'Lemod', four for 'le'Lamed', four for 'li'Shemor' and four for 'La'asos'.

5)

(a)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Ki Savo ...

1. ... "Eleh Divrei ha'Beris Asher Tzivah Hash-m Es Moshe"?

2. ... "Mi'levad ha'Bris Asher Karas Itam b'Chorev"?

(b)So how many B'risos did Hash-m make with Klal Yisrael in total?

5)

(a)We learn from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Eleh Divrei ha'Beris Asher Tzivah Hash-m Es Moshe" - that Hash-m made a similar covenant with Klal Yisrael at Arvos Mo'av.

2. ... "Mi'levad ha'Bris Asher Karas Itam b'Chorev" - that He had already made the same covenant with them at Har Sinai.

(b)Consequently, all in all - Hash-m made forty-eight covenants with Yisrael, sixteen at Sinai, sixteen at Arvos Mo'av and sixteen at Har Gerizim and Har Eival.

6)

(a)Rebbi Shimon agrees with the forty-eight covenants, but disagrees with the fact that sixteen of them were made at Har Gerizim and Har Eival. On what basis does he omit that location from the list of covenants?

(b)Then where was the third set of covenants made?

(c)In fact, the Tana Kama of the previous Beraisa concurs with Rebbi Yishmael in another Beraisa, whilst Rebbi Shimon holds like Rebbi Akiva there. Does this mean that according to the former, no covenant at all was made in the Ohel Mo'ed?

6)

(a)Rebbi Shimon agrees with the forty-eight covenants, but disagrees with the fact that sixteen of them were made at Har Gerizim and Har Eival. He omits that location from the list of covenants - because only those Mitzvos contained in the Berachos and the Kelalos were stated there, and not all the Taryag Mitzvos.

(b)The third set of covenants, according to him, was made in the Ohel Mo'ed (i.e. the Mishkan [after Sinai]).

(c)In fact, the Tana Kama of the previous Beraisa concurs with Rebbi Yishmael in another Beraisa, and Rebbi Shimon holds like Rebbi Akiva there. This does not mean that according to the former, no covenant at all was made in the Ohel Mo'ed - only that it was part of the same covenant as that of Sinai (the Klal was struck at Sinai, and the Prat in the Ohel Mo'ed).

7)

(a)Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah Ish Kfar Ako quotes Rebbi Shimon as saying that, in view of the above, every single Jew accepted six hundred and three thousand, five hundred and fifty times forty-eight covenants incorporating Arvus. What is 'Arvus'?

(b)What is the significance of this number?

(c)Rebbi disagrees with the Tana Kama's interpretation of Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah Ish Kfar Ako's quotation of Rebbi Shimon. How does Rav Mesharshaya explain the ramifications of the same amount of covenants that he adds to Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah Ish Kfar Ako's list?

7)

(a)Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah Ish Kfar Ako quotes Rebbi Shimon as saying that, in view of the above, every single Jew accepted six hundred and three thousand, five hundred and fifty times forty-eight covenants incorporating Arvus, the responsibility that each Jew accepts for the actions of his fellow-Jew (as the Torah describes in Nitzavim).

(b)The above number - tallies with the number of Bnei Yisrael between the ages of twenty and sixty at that time.

(c)Rebbi disagrees with the Tana Kama's interpretation of Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah Ish Kfar Ako's quotation of Rebbi Shimon. When he adds the same amount of covenants again, says Rav Mesharshiya - he means that, not only is every Jew responsible for his friend, but - that he is also responsible for his friend's Arvus (see Tosfos DH 'Amar').

8)

(a)Who was Rebbi Yehudah bar Nachmani?

(b)What problem did he have with the Pasuk "Arur ha'Ish Asher Ya'aseh Pesel u'Maseichah ... "?

(c)So how did he interpret it?

(d)'Kol ha'Parshah Kulah ... ' implies however, that Rebbi Yehudah bar Nachmani learns all the twelve curses in this way (see Agados Maharsha). How does he interpret in this light, the curses of ...

1. ... "Shochev Im Chosanto, Eshes Aviv and Achoso"?

2. ... "Shochev Im Kol Behemah"?

3. ... "Mekalel Aviv v'Imo"?

8)

(a)Rebbi Yehudah bar Nachmani - was Reish Lakish's translator.

(b)The problem he had with the Pasuk "Arur ha'Ish Asher Ya'aseh Pesel u'Maseichah ... " - is that since such a person denies Hash-m, he deserves not just a curse, but much worse.

(c)So he interprets it - to refer to someone who commits adultery which results with a child, who is a Mamzer, forbidden to marry a Jewish daughter, and who therefore mixes with Nochrim, in order to find a wife, and proceeds to serve idols like them.

(d)'Kol ha'Parshah Kulah ... ' implies however, that Rebbi Yehudah bar Nachmani learns all the twelve curses in connection with adultery (see Agados Maharsha). He interprets in this light, the curse of ...

1. ... "Shochev Im Chosanto", "Eshes Aviv" or "Achoso" - when the woman is married as well, bringing upon himself a double curse.

2. ... "Shochev Im Kol Behemah" - by a case of a man who commits adultery with a married woman, and it is her behavior which the Torah describes as that of an animal (as we learned above in the first Perek).

3. ... "Mekalel Aviv v'Imo" - when, by committing adultery, brings shame and disgrace on his parents, for the bad upbringing that he received at their hands.

9)

(a)The Beraisa now discusses the Pasuk "v'Nasata Es ha'Berachah Al Har Gerizim v'Es ha'Kelalah Al Har Eival". Having already written "Eleh Ya'amdu Levarech Es ha'Am ... v'Eleh Ya'amdu Al ha'Kelalah", why does the Torah need to add this Pasuk?

(b)And what do we learn from the fact that "Berachah u'Kelalah" are written in the singular?

(c)In fact, the Pasuk lists only the Kelalos (and not the Berachos). From where do we learn that all the Halachic details that pertain to the Kelalos pertain also to the Berachos?

9)

(a)The Beraisa now discusses the Pasuk "v'Nasata Es ha'Berachah Al Har Gerizim v'Es ha'Kelalah Al Har Eival". Having already written "Eleh Ya'amdu Levarech Es ha'Am ... v'Eleh Ya'amdu Al ha'Kelalah", the Torah nevertheless needs to add this Pasuk" - to teach us that (in spite of the fact that the Torah records only the Kelalos) the Leviyim had to first recite the Berachos.

(b)And from the fact that "Berachah u'Kelalah" are written in the singular, we learn - that rather than announce all the Berachos first, they would call out one Berachah at a time, followed by the Kelalah that was coming to whoever failed to adhere to the Berachah.

(c)In fact, the Pasuk lists only the Kelalos (and not the Berachos). We learn that all the Halachic details that pertain to the Kelalos pertain also to the Berachos - from the fact that the Torah compares them by placing them in the same Pasuk.

10)

(a)The Hekesh comparing the Berachos to the Kelalos incorporates five Halachos: that the Berachos too, must be said by the Leviyim; that they must be announced in a loud voice and in Lashon ha'Kodesh (like the Kelalos). What are the other two?

10)

(a)The Hekesh comparing the Berachos to the Kelalos incorporates five Halachos: that the Berachos too, must be said by the Leviyim; that they must announced in a loud voice and in Lashon ha'Kodesh (like the Kelalos) - that both the Klal and the Prat were to apply (as we explained earlier) and that when the Kohanim called out the Berachos everyone responded with 'Amen' (just as they did by the Kelalos, as we explained above).

11)

(a)What is the significance of the fact that Birchas Kohanim is said as three Berachos outside the Beis-Hamikdash?

(b)Then why in the Beis-Hamikdash, is it said as one Berachah?

(c)What other difference does our Mishnah list between the two as regards ...

1. ... the way the Kohanim recite it?

2. ... the Kohanim place their hands?

(d)Why do the Kohanim raise their hands above their heads in the Beis ha'Mikdash?

11)

(a)The significance of the fact that Birchas Kohanim is said as three Berachos outside the Beis-Hamikdash is - that we respond with 'Amen' after each Berachah (i.e. Pasuk).

(b)In the Beis-Hamikdash however, it is said as one Berachah - because 'Amen' is never said in the Beis-Hamikdash.

(c)The difference that our Mishnah lists between the two as regards ...

1. ... the way the Kohanim recite it is - that in the Beis-Hamikdash, the Kohanim pronounce the Name of Hash-m the way it is written, whereas outside the Beis-Hamikdash, they pronounce it the same way as we do.

2. ... the Kohanim place their hands is - that in the Beis-Hamikdash, they raised their hands above their heads, whereas outside, only at shoulder height.

(d)In the Beis ha'Mikdash, the Kohanim raise their hands above their heads - because there they mentioned the Name of Hash-m, and the Shechinah appeared above their finger-joints.

12)

(a)According to the Tana Kama, the one exception, regarding this latter Halachah, is the Kohen Gadol, who did not differentiate between inside the Beis-Hamikdash and outside it. Why is that?

(b)Rebbi Yehudah disagrees. What does he learn from the Pasuk in Shemini "va'Yisa Aharon Es Yadav El ha'Am va'Yevarchem"?

12)

(a)According to the Tana Kama, the one exception, regarding this latter Halachah, is the Kohen Gadol, who did not differentiate between inside the Beis-Hamikdash and outside it - because he wore the Tzitz, above which he was never permitted to raise his hands.

(b)Rebbi Yehudah disagrees. He learns from the Pasuk "va'Yisa Aharon Es Yadav El ha'Am va'Yevarchem" - that even the Kohen Gadol was obligated to raise his hands above his head when Duchening.

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