VERSES SAID DURING BIRKAS KOHANIM (cont.)
(Mar Zutra): In Ne'ilah on Yom Kipur, they say "so will be blessed a man who fears Hash-m"; "Hash-m will bless you from Tziyon..."; "You will see children to your children."
Question: When are the verses said?
Answer #1 (Rav Yosef): They are said after each of the three Berachos.
Answer #2 (Rav Sheshes): They are said after each of the three mentions of Hash-m's name.
Opinion #1 (Rav Mari or Rav Zevid): At each of these three places (according to Rav Yosef or Rav Sheshes), one of the three verses is said.
Opinion #2 (The other of Rav Mari and Rav Zevid): At each of these three places, all three verses are said.
(R. Chiya bar Aba): It is a mistake to say the verses outside the Mikdash.
Support (Rav Papa): Even in the Mikdash, it is not so proper. If a servant is being blessed, shouldn't he listen attentively?!
(Rav Acha bar Chanina): The verses should also be said outside the Mikdash.
If a servant is being blessed, should he not show his appreciation?!
(R. Avahu): I used to say the verses. When I saw that R. Aba of Ako did not say them, I stopped saying them.
R. AVAHU AND R. ABA
(R. Avahu): I used to consider myself humble. I saw that R. Aba of Ako was not upset when his translator (who was broadcasting R. Aba's lesson) explained things unlike R. Aba said, and I realized that I am not humble.
Question: What is the source that R. Avahu was humble?
Answer #1: The wife of R. Avahu's translator told R. Avahu's wife 'my husband does not need your husband (he is no less a Chacham; he merely shows honor to him).' When R. Avahu heard this, he did not care.
Answer #2: Chachamim voted that R. Avahu should be the head. He saw that R. Aba of Ako was in debt, so he told them that R. Aba should be the head. (The custom was to give gifts to the head to make him rich, so his words will be heeded.)
R. Avahu and R. Chiya bar Aba came to a place. R. Avahu gave a lesson in Agadeta (non-Halachic teachings). R. Chiya bar Aba gave a lesson in Halachic teachings. Everyone flocked to R. Avahu's lesson. R. Chiya bar Aba was distraught.
R. Avahu: Our situation is like two men. One sells gems, and the other sells cheap essentials. Everyone flocks to the seller of the cheap things.
R. Chiya bar Aba used to escort R. Avahu to where R. Avahu was staying, because the emperor esteemed R. Avahu. That day, R. Avahu escorted R. Chiya bar Aba to R. Chiya bar Aba's lodging, yet R. Chiya bar Aba was still distraught.
THE TZIBUR'S THANKS
Question: When the Shali'ach Tzibur says the Berachah Modim (we thank), what does the Tzibur say?
Answer #1 (Rav): They say 'Hashem, we thank You for giving us the desire to thank You.'
Answer #2 (Shmuel): They say '(we thank You,) G-d of all flesh, for giving us the desire to thank You.'
Answer #3 (R. Simai): They say '(we thank You,) Who formed us, Who formed the creation, for giving us the desire to thank You.'
Answer #4 (Neharde'a, citing R. Simai): They say 'thanks and praises to Your great name, that You kept us alive and sustained us, for giving us the desire to thank You.'
Rav Acha bar Yakov would conclude 'so may You sustain us and be gracious to us and gather our exiles to Your Kodesh courtyards, to guard Your statutes and do Your will with a full heart, for giving us the desire to thank You.
(Rav Papa): Therefore, we say all of these.
(R. Yitzchak): The fear of the Tzibur should be upon you. Kohanim face the Tzibur, and have their back to the Divine Presence!
(Rav Nachman): We can learn from "King David stood up and said 'hear me, my brothers and nation.'"
Question: If he considers Bnei Yisrael his brothers, why does he call them his nation?
Answer (R. Elazar): He told them: if you listen to me, you are my brothers. If not, you are my nation, and I will rule over you (harshly) with a staff.
(Rabanan): R. Yochanan ben Zakai made nine enactments. One was that Kohanim may not ascend to bless the Tzibur while wearing shoes. This shows that one should have fear of the Tzibur!
Suggestion: They may not wear shoes because this is disrespectful to the Tzibur.
Rejection (Rav Ashi): No. The concern is lest a Kohen's shoelace snap, and he will stop to tie it and miss Birkas Kohanim. People will think he did not bless because he is a Pasul Kohen, e.g. his mother was divorced did Chalitzah.
(Mishnah): In the Mikdash, Birkas Kohanim was one long Berachah.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: We do not answer Amen in the Mikdash, so nothing separates the three verses of Berachah.
(Beraisa): "Arise and bless Hash-m from (this) world until the (next) world (and may Your Kodesh name be blessed)" teaches that we do not answer Amen in the Mikdash (rather, 'blessed is the name of His honored kingdom forever');
"And may Your Kodesh name be blessed and exalted Al (above) every Berachah and praise" teaches that we answer (blessed is the name...) Al (for) each Berachah.
THE KOHEN GADOL READS THE TORAH ON YOM KIPUR
(Mishnah): (On Yom Kipur) the overseer of the Beis ha'Keneses (near the Mikdash) gives the Sefer Torah to the head of the Beis ha'Keneses (Gabai), who gives it to the Segan (the Kohen ready to substitute for the Kohen Gadol if necessary), who gives it to the Kohen Gadol.
The Kohen Gadol stands up, receives the Torah and reads from the Parshiyos "after the death (of Nadav and Avihu)" and "on the 10th" (which discusses Yom Kipur);
He rolls (closes) the Torah and says 'there is more written in this Sefer than what I read.' He reads by heart the Parshah (of Korbanos Musaf of Yom Kipur) in Sefer Bamidbar.
He blesses eight Berachos - for reading the Torah, for the Mikdash service, of thanks, for forgiveness of sin, for the Mikdash, for Yisrael, for the Kohanim, for Yerushalayim, and for the rest of the prayer. (This seems to be nine Berachos. Keren Orah says that the Berachah for Yisrael is the Berachah for the rest of the prayer. In the Mishnayos (and the Yerushalmi), the text omits the Berachah 'for Yerushalayim.')
(Gemara): Our Mishnah teaches that one may honor a Talmid (we give the Torah to the Segan) in front of his Rebbi (the Kohen Gadol).
Rejection (Abaye): No. Here it is permitted only because this itself adds honor to the Kohen Gadol.
(Mishnah): The Kohen Gadol stands up and receives the Torah...
Inference: This implies that he was sitting before this.
Question: Only kings of the Davidic line may sit in the Mikdash!
We learn from "King David came and sat in front of Hash-m, and said 'who am I?...'"
Answer: We answer like Rav Chisda (explained the coming Beraisa), that he reads in the Ezras Nashim (a courtyard without the full Kedushah of the Mikdash. One may sit there.)
(Beraisa): He reads in the courtyard of the Mikdash;
R. Eliezer ben Yakov says, he reads in the Temple Mount - "he read in it (the Torah) in front of the street in front of the Water Gate.
(Rav Chisda): (The first Tana means that) he reads in the Ezras Nashim.