[34a - 55 lines; 34b - 51 lines]
1a)[line 9]נאמר כאן "תחטא"NE'EMAR KAN "SECHETA"- the verse states "Secheta" here (Vayikra 5:1) [with regard to Shevu'as ha'Edus]
b)[line 10]ונאמר להלן "תחטא"V'NE'EMAR L'HALAN "SECHETA"- and another verse states "Secheta" there (Vayikra 5:21) [with regard to Shevu'as ha'Pikadon]
2)[line 13]"או" "או" ביטוי יוכיחו"O" "O" BITUY YOCHICHU- the words "O" [in the verse dealing with Shevu'as] Bituy, ["או נפש כי תשבע לבטא בשפתים להרע או להֵיטיב..." "O Nefesh Ki Sishava l'Vatei vi'Sefasayim l'Hara O l'Hetiv..." (Vayikra 5:4)] will prove [that Shevu'as ha'Edus should apply even to cases that do not involve monetary claims, when they are compared to the words "O" in the verse dealing with Shevu'as ha'Edus, "... v'Hu Ed O Ra'ah O Yada..." (Vayikra 5:1)]
3a)[line 18]חטא במזיד תבעיה וכפריה ועבריהCHEIT B'MEZID TAV'EI V'CHAFREI V'AVREI- these words stand for the topics that are in common between Shevu'as ha'Edus and Shevu'as ha'Pikadon (in contrast to Shevu'as Bituy), as follows:
1.Cheit refers to the fact that a Gezeirah Shavah is learned between the words Secheta in Shevu'as ha'Edus and Shevu'as ha'Pikadon; this word does not appear in the verse of Shevu'as Bituy.
2.b'Mezid refers to the fact that one is liable to bring a Korban for transgression b'Mezid (intentionally) in both Shevu'as ha'Edus and Shevu'as ha'Pikadon; one brings a Korban only for transgression b'Shogeg (unintentionally) in Shevu'as Bituy.
3.Tav'ei v'Chafrei refers to the fact that both Shevu'as ha'Edus and Shevu'as ha'Pikadon apply in cases where there is a Tove'a (claimant) who demands testimony or monetary compensation and a defendant who is Kofer (denies) that he knows testimony or that he owes money. Shevu'as Bituy contains neither.
4.v'Avrei refers to the fact that the oaths of Shevu'as ha'Edus and Shevu'as ha'Pikadon apply to the Avar (the past), while the main example brought in the verse of Shev'as Bituy applies to the future (l'Hara O l'Hetiv).
b)[line 20]חטאת שירדה לחומשCHATAS SHE'YARDAH L'CHOMESH- these words stand for the topics that are in common between Shevu'as ha'Edus and Shevu'as Bituy, as follows:
1.Chatas refers to the fact that the Korban required for sinning with regard to Shevu'as ha'Edus and Shevu'as Bituy is a Korban Chatas, while the Korban required for sinning with regard to Shevu'as ha'Pikadon is a Korban Ashzam.
2.she'Yardah refers to the fact that the Korban Chatas of Shevu'as ha'Edus and Shevu'as Bituy is a Korban Oleh v'Yored (i.e. it varies based on the means of the penitent - see Background to Shevuos 24:14b), while the Korban Asham of Shevu'as ha'Pikadon is Kavu'a (i.e. it does not vary).
3.l'Chomesh refers to the fact that neither Shevu'as ha'Edus nor Shevu'as Bituy generate a liability to pay Chomesh (a fifth) of the claim, while Shevu'as ha'Pikadon does.
4)[line 21]הנך נפישןHANACH NEFISHAN- these (Cheit b'Mezid Tav'ei v'Chafrei v'Avrei) are more numerous
5)[line 21]"והיה כי יאשם לאחת מֵאֵלֶּה; [וְהִתְוַדָּה אֲשֶׁר חטא עליה]""V'HAYAH CHI YE'SHAM L'ACHAS ME'ELEH; [V'HISVADAH ASHER CHATA ALEHA]"- "And it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these things (mentioned above, verses 1-4) [that he shall confess that he has sinned in that thing]" (Vayikra 5:5).
6)[line 24]דבר אחרDAVAR ACHER- any other claim (besides a monetary claim)
7)[line 35]האוחרHA'OCHER- (a) kicking (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) kicking while engaged in mating (RASHI's 2nd explanation); (b) biting (RASHI to Sanhedrin 37b)
8)[line 38]אראה בנחמהER'EH BA'NECHAMAH...- (a) "I will see the [day that Bnei Yisrael will be in a state of] comfort (and will be redeemed from Galus)" (BEREISHIS RABAH 65:12, see MAHARSHA to Pesachim 54b). This phrase is a euphemism meaning, "I will not see the Day of Redemption (if the following is not true)." (RASHI to Makos 5b DH Er'eh, 1st explanation); (b) "[I take an oath that my sons shall die and] I will see [the period of mourning in which people will come to] comfort [me] (if the following is not true)." (RASHI to Makos 5b DH Er'eh, 2nd explanation)
9)[line 40]לחורבהCHURVAH- a ruined building
10)[line 40]סייףSAYIF- a sword
11)[line 40]ודם מטפטףDAM METAFTEF- blood was dripping
12)[line 41]והרוג מפרפרHARUG MEFARPER- the victim was still convulsing
13)[line 50]אם אדם טרפה הרג או שלם הרגIM ADAM TEREIFAH HARAG O SHALEM HARAG - if he (the murderer) killed a [person who was a] Tereifah or a healthy person (HA'HOREG ES HA'TEREIFAH)
(a)A Tereifah is a person who or an animal that has acquired or was born with a fatal defect that will result in his or its death within a year. The signs of a Tereifah are described in Chulin 42a et seq. (There are some who maintain that a Tereifah can live for more than a year - see Chulin 42a-b).
(b)A person who murders a Tereifah does not receive the capital punishment. As such, it is essential to know whether the victim was a Tereifah or not, as the Gemara discusses in Makos (Daf 7a).
14)[last line]מנה מניתיך בפני פלוני ופלוניMANEH MINISICHSA BIFNEI PELONI U'FELONI- I counted out for you a Maneh (100 Zuzim) before Peloni and Peloni (two witnesses)
15)[line 2]והלהV'HALAH- and the other one (i.e. the accused)
16)[line 3]הוחזק כפרןHUCHZAK KAFRAN- he is presumed to be a liar (and Beis Din does not allow him to make a Shevu'ah)
17)[line 5]המנונא את עול תאHAMNUNA AT, UL TA- (lit. You are Hamnuna, come in [to the Beis ha'Midrash].) Since the Elders of Nezunya chided Rav Hamnuna when he did not know the answer to their question (Kidushin 25a), calling him "Karnuna" instead of Hamnuna (Ham Nuna sounds like Cham Nuna, which means hot fish; they were calling him a cold fish), Rav Yehudah intended to encourage him and negate the rebuke of those Elders, in response to his brilliant answer quoted in our Sugya (TORAS CHAYIM).
18)[line 8]דהשתין מיםHISHTIN MAYIM- he urinated
19)[line 10]דינא פרסאהDINA PARSA'AH- Persian law (that is, not the law of the Torah - RASHI to Bava Kama 58b), i.e. arbitrariness
20a)[line 10]מעולםME'OLAM- ever
b)[line 11]בעסק זהB'ESEK ZEH- in this case (of the loan)
21)[line 15]כל מילתא דלא רמיא עליה דאיניש, עביד לה ולאו אדעתיהKOL MILSA D'LO RAMYA ALEI D'INISH, AVID LAH V'LAV A'DA'ATEI- any matter in which a person does not have a vested interest (i.e. that is not very important to him to remember), he may do an action related to that matter without realizing it
22)[line 18]מחכו עלה במערבאMECHACHU ALAH B'MA'ARAVA- they laughed about it (the version of the Beraisa quoted in the name of Rebbi Shimon, which is challenged in the Sugya that follows) in the west (Eretz Yisrael) (the Gemara Sanhedrin 17b concludes that these words signify a statement of Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina)
23)[line 18]מאי חוכא?MAI CHUCHA?- (lit. What is the laughing [about]?) What is the problem [with our version of the Beraisa]?
24)[line 30]ממעילה רבי שמעון גמר להMI'ME'ILAH REBBI SHIMON GAMAR LAH - [by comparing the topic of Shevu'as ha'Pikadon to the topic] of Me'ilah, Rebbi Shimon learned [that Mezid is not similar to Shogeg with regard to Shevu'as ha'Pikadon] (ME'ILAH)
(a)It is forbidden to derive personal benefit from anything that is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "לא תוכל לאכל בשעריך... וכל נדריך אֲשר תדר" "Lo Suchal le'Echol b'Sha'arecha... v'Chol Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and all of your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3). The minimum amount for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth of benefit.
(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh b'Mezid (intentionally), he is liable to Malkus (according to the Rabanan; according to Rebbi he is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim) and must pay to Hekdesh the amount that he benefited. However, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.
(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh b'Shogeg (unintentionally), the object loses its Kedushah. He must bring a Korban Me'ilah and repay Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). This is true of any object that has Kedushas Damim (i.e. its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object that has Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is") does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).
25)[line 33]שכן מעילה ממעילהSHE'KEN ME'ILAH MI'ME'ILAH- since [Shevu'as ha'Pikadon, which contains the phrase "u'Ma'alah Ma'al" (Vayikra 5:21), which is related to the word] Me'ilah [can be learned] from [the topic of] Me'ilah [by comparing that phrase to the phrase "Sim'ol Ma'al" (Vayikra 5:15), to teach that Mezid is not similar to Shogeg]
26a)[line 36]מעילה בכל נהנה בקבוע חומש ואשםME'ILAH BA'KOL NEHENEH B'KAVU'A CHOMESH V'ASHAM- these words stand for the topics that are in common between Shevu'as ha'Pikadon and Me'ilah, as follows:
1.Me'ilah refers to the fact that words from the root Me'ilah appear in the verses of Shevu'as ha'Pikadon and Me'ilah (see previous entry) but not in the verse of Shevu'as ha'Edus (whether or not Me'ilah - Me'ilah is a Gezeirah Shavah, see TOSFOS DH Hanach).
2.ba'Kol refers to the fact that both Shevu'as ha'Pikadon and Me'ilah apply to all people, while Shevu'as ha'Edus only applies to people who are fit to testify.
3.Neheneh refers to the fact that one who transgresses either Shevu'as ha'Pikadon or Me'ilah have been Neheneh (have benefited) from someone else's money or from Hekdesh; the witness who transgresses Shevu'as ha'Edus does not receive any direct benefit.
4.b'Kavu'a refers to the fact that the Korbanos of Shevu'as ha'Pikadon and Me'ilah are both Korbenos Kevu'im (i.e. they do not vary based upon the means of the sinner), while the Korban Oleh v'Yored of Shevu'as ha'Edus is not Kavu'a.
5.Chomesh refers to the fact that one who transgresses either Shevu'as ha'Pikadon or Me'ilah must pay a Chomesh (a fifth of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value - see Background to Shevuos 31:18 and above, entry #24:c), while the witness who transgresses Shevu'as ha'Edus does not pay a Chomesh.
6.v'Asham refers to the fact that the Korbanos of Shevu'as ha'Pikadon and Me'ilah are both Korbenos Asham while the Korban of Shevu'as ha'Edus is a Chatas.
b)[line 37]חטא הדיוט בשבועה תבעיה וכפריה ואואיןCHEIT HEDYOT BI'SHEVU'AH TAV'EI V'CHAFREI V'O'IN- these words stand for the topics that are in common between Shevu'as ha'Pikadon and Shevu'as ha'Edus, as follows:
1.Cheit refers to the fact that a Gezeirah Shavah is learned between the words Secheta in Shevu'as ha'Pikadon and Shevu'as ha'Edus; this word does not appear in the verses of Me'ilah.
2.Hedyot refers to the fact that one who transgresses Shevu'as ha'Pikadon and Shevu'as ha'Edus is involved with a court case of a Hedyot (an ordinary citizen) while one who transgresses the prohibition of Me'ilah is involved with a case of Hekdesh.
3.b'Shevu'ah refers to the fact that both Shevu'as ha'Pikadon and Shevu'as ha'Edus involve Shevu'os (oaths) while Me'ilah does not.
4.Tav'ei v'Chafrei refers to the fact that both Shevu'as ha'Pikadon and Shevu'as ha'Edus apply in cases where there is a Tove'a (claimant) who demands monetary compensation or testimony and a defendant who is Kofer (denies) that he owes money or that he knows testimony. Me'ilah contains neither.
5.v'O'in refers to the fact that the words או O appear in the verses dealing with Shevu'as ha'Pikadon, "...O vi'Sesumes Yad O v'Gazel O Ashak Es Amiso. O Matza Aveidah..." (Vayikra 5:21-22), and in the verses dealing with Shevu'as ha'Edus, "...v'Hu Ed O Ra'ah O Yada..." (Vayikra 5:1), while they do not appear in the verses dealing with Me'ilah (Vayikra 5:14-16).
27)[line 40]מבי רבMI'BEI RAV- from the Beis ha'Midrash
28a)[line 41]גזירה שוה גמירGEZEIRAH SHAVAH GAMIR (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH)
(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Gezeirah Shavah, which is a Halachic device by which two similar words in the Torah from different subjects teach that laws from one subject apply to the other.
(b)A sage is only permitted to use the method of Gezeirah Shavah if he received a tradition from his teachers that a Gezeirah Shavah exists between the two words. However, the comparison that he makes regarding which laws are applied from one subject to the other may be his own, if he did not learn it directly from his teachers.
(c)MUFNEH MI'SHENEI TZEDADIM - If two similar words in the Torah are free of any Derashah, they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah between the two topics.
(d)MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If only one of the words is free, there is a Machlokes whether they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah (Lemedin v'Ein Meshivin), or if they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument against learning the Gezeirah Shavah (Lemedin u'Meshivin).
(e)EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If both words are used for another Derashah, there is a Machlokes whether they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument not to learn the Gezeirah Shavah, or if they cannot be used at all for a Gezeirah Shavah.
b)[line 41]גזירה שוה גמיר, למה ליה דפריךGEZEIRAH SHAVAH GAMIR; LAMAH LEI D'FARICH...?- [Rebbi Shimon] learns a Gezeirah Shavah [to teach that Shevu'as ha'Edus only applies to a monetary claim]; why does he question (starting on Daf 34a, line 6) [the comparison between Shevu'as ha'Edus and Shevu'as ha'Pikadon? He can equally learn the Halachos of Shevu'as ha'Pikadon (that it applies to Mezid as well as to Shogeg and to Mushba as well as to Nishba) from Shevu'as ha'Edus!]
29a)[line 43]כי פריך, מקמי דתיקום ליה גזירה שוהKI FARICH, MEKAMEI D'TEIKUM LEI GEZEIRAH SHAVAH- perhaps he only questions [the comparison] before he showed the necessity of the Gezeirah Shavah [by attempting to learn the comparison through a Mah Matzinu]
b)[line 44]בתר דקמא ליה גזירה שוה לא פריךBASAR D'KAMA LEI GEZEIRAH SHAVAH LO FARICH- after he showed the necessity of the Gezeirah Shavah [through his questions], he does question (i.e. he does not rule according to the Halachos presented in the questions)