TZEDADIM AND TZIDEI TZEDADIM
(Rava): The opinion that forbids Tzedadim also forbids Tzidei Tzedadim; the opinion that permits Tzidei Tzedadim also permits Tzedadim.
Question (Rav Mesharshiya - Beraisa): If a peg was inserted into a tree and one hung a basket (four by four Tefachim wide) above 10 Tefachim [and put food inside for an Eiruv], the Eiruv is Pasul (it is in Reshus ha'Yachid, the person is in Reshus ha'Yachid, he may not take it Bein ha'Shemashos);
If it is below 10, the Eiruv is Kosher.
Inference: Below 10 it is Kosher because the basket rests on a peg in the tree - if it hung on the tree itself, it would be Pasul in any case!
Summation of question: The Tana forbids Tzedadim (on the tree itself) and permits Tzidei Tzedadim (on a peg in the tree)!
Answer (Rav Papa): The case is, the basket has a narrow opening - if it would be attached to the tree itself, he could not remove the food without moving the tree.
The Halachah is, Tzedadim are forbidden, and Tzidei Tzedadim are permitted.
(Rav Ashi): Since Tzedadim are forbidden, one may not rest a ladder against a date tree [and go up] - rather, he should insert a peg, and rest the ladder against it;
When going up, one may not step on the peg, only on rungs of the ladder.
MAKING AND IMPROVING FOOD ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): One may untie Peki'ei (bundles of) straw in front of an animal and spread out Kipin, but not Zirin (these will be explained);
One may not [finely] cut fodder or carobs for a Gasah or Dakah (big (work) animal or small animal);
R. Yehudah permits cutting carobs for a small animal.
(Gemara - Rav Huna): Peki'in and Kipin are the same - Peki'in are two, Kipin are three; Zirin are cedar branches;
The Mishnah teaches, one may untie Peki'im of straw and spread them out, the same applies to Kipin;
Both of these are forbidden regarding Zirin.
(Rav Chisda): Rav Huna holds that Tirchah (exertion) for [improving] food is permitted, but not Shivuy Ochel (to make something inedible into a food).
(Rav Yehudah): Peki'in and Zirin are the same - Peki'in are two, Zirin are three; Kipin are cedar branches;
The Mishnah teaches, one may untie Peki'im of straw but may not spread them out, one may untie Peki'im and spread out Kipin;
One may untie Zirin, but may not spread them out.
(Rava): Rav Yehudah permits Shivuy Ochel, but forbids Tirchah [for food].
Question (Mishnah): One may not cut fodder or carobs for a big or small animal.
Suggestion: The Mishnah discusses carobs like fodder, i.e. they are soft (edible), nevertheless we may not cut them, for this is Tirchah - this refutes Rav Huna!
Answer: No, it discusses fodder like carobs, it is hard.
Question: What is a case of hard fodder?
Answer: Fodder is too hard for young donkeys to eat.
Question (Mishnah - R. Yehudah): One may cut carobs for a small animal.
Inference: It is permitted for a small animal, not for a big animal.
If the first Tana forbids Tirchah and permits Shivuy Ochel, we understand this - R. Yehudah comes to say that cutting carobs for a small animal is also Shivuy Ochel [and is permitted].
But if the first Tana forbids Shivuy Ochel and permits Tirchah, since R. Yehudah permits cutting carobs for a small animal (he holds that it is not Shivuy Ochel, the animal could eat it without this), all the more so it is permitted for a big animal!
Answer: R. Yehudah permits for a 'Dakah' - this does not mean a small animal, rather, a big animal;
He calls it Dakah because it is Daika (fussy) about what it eats.
Objection: The Reisha says 'for a Gasah or Dakah', there 'Dakah' means the opposite of big - surely also R. Yehudah uses it to refer to a small animal!
This is left difficult.
Question (Mishnah): One may cut gourds in front of a Behemah and a Nevelah in front of dogs.
Suggestion: The gourds are like the Nevelah, they are soft!
This shows that Tirchah is permitted - this refutes Rav Yehudah!
Answer: No, the Nevelah is like the gourds, it is hard.
Question: What is a case of a hard Nevelah?
Answer #1: It is elephant meat. (Elsewhere (Chulin 112A) Pili refers to cracks in meat, but there is no reason why such meat should be hard - PF.)
Answer #2: Any Nevelah is too hard for young puppies.
(Rav Chanan - Beraisa): We may crush straw and fodder and mix them together (the animal will eat the mixture on account of the fodder).
This shows that Tirchah is permitted!
Rejection: No - the case is, the straw is spoiled, the fodder is for young donkeys.
FORCE FEEDING ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): We may not Oves a camel [force food down its throat] or press food into its throat, but Mal'itim (this and the coming terms will be defined);
We may not Ma'amir calves, but Mal'itim and Mehalketim chickens, and we may put water in their bran, but we may not knead it;
We may not put water in front of bees or doves in a dovecote, but we may put in front of geese, chickens and domestic doves.
(Gemara) Question: Question: What does it mean 'We may not Oves'?
Answer (Rav Yehudah): We may not make an Avus (feeding trough) in its innards.
Question: Is it really possible to fatten it so much?!
Answer: Yes! R. Yirmeyah mi'Difti saw an Aravi load his camel with 30 Sa'im of food [to eat on the way] in addition to a load of 30 Sa'im (Tosfos Bava Metzi'a).
(Mishnah): We may not Ma'amir...
Question: What are Ma'amirim and Mal'itim?
Answer #1 (Rav Yehudah): Ma'amirim is putting food in the throat to a place where the animal cannot spit it out; Mal'itim is putting in the throat to a place where it can spit it out.
Answer #2 (Rav Chisda): Both of these are to a place where it cannot spit it out;
Ma'amirim is using a Kli, Mal'itim is by hand.
Question (Rav Yosef - Beraisa): Mehalketim chickens, there is no need to say Malkitim;
One may not Malkit doves in a dovecote or upper story, there is no need to say we may not Mehalket.
Question: What are Malkitim and Mehalketim?
Suggestion: Malkitim is putting food in its mouth, and Mehalketim is putting food in front of it.
Rejection: Surely, one may put food in front of doves in a dovecote or upper story!
Answer: Rather, Mehalketim is putting food where the animal cannot spit it out; Malkitim is in a place where it can spit it out.
Inference: If so, [we cannot say that Ma'amirim and Mal'itim are the same, rather,] we must say [like Rav Chisda] that Ma'amirim is using a Kli - this refutes Rav Yehudah.
Answer: Really, Malkitim is putting food in its mouth, and Mehalketim is putting in front of it;
Above, we asserted that surely one may put food in front of doves in a dovecote or upper story - this is wrong, he is not responsible to feed them (they can find food in the Midbar);
(Beraisa): One may put food in front of dogs, but not in front of pigs.
Question: What is the difference between them?
Answer: One is responsible to feed his dogs, but not to feed pigs (it is forbidden to raise them).
Support (Rav Ashi - Mishnah): We may not put water in front of bees or doves in a dovecote, but we may put in front of geese, chickens and domestic doves.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: One may feed only what he is responsible to feed.
Objection: Why does the Mishnah forbid water - it is forbidden even to put wheat and barley!
Answer: It is forbidden to put water, because they can find water themselves in the swamp (but food is not readily available, one may feed them).
(R. Yonah): "Yode'a Tzadik Din Dalim" - Hash-m knows that dogs do not find food in abundance, therefore He caused that its food stays in its system for three days:
(Mishnah) Question: If an animal ate Tum'as Mes [and died], for how long [between eating and dying] is the Tum'ah [still inside, and] Metamei? (While the animal is alive, the Tum'ah is Balu'ah (swallowed), it is not Metamei.)
Answer: For a dog, it is Metamei for three full (24 hour) days; for birds and fish, it is the time it takes for them to burn after falling into a fire.
(Rav Hamnuna): [Since Hash-m is concerned for a dog's food,] this teaches that it is proper to throw meat to dogs [even not your own].
Question: How much should one throw?
Answer (Rav Mari): An ear's worth [a small amount,] then immediately hit it [so it will not regularly seek food from you];
This is in the field - do not do so in the city, lest it will regularly seek food from you.
(Rav Papa): A dog is the poorest creature, a pig is the wealthiest (it eats anything, and is well fed).
Support (for Rav Yehudah - Beraisa): Ma'amirim is making it crouch and propping is mouth open [with a hook] and feeding it vetch and water together (it cannot avoid swallowing the vetch with the water);
Mal'itim is making it eat and drink while standing (one cannot put in so much), to a place where it can spit it out.
LIABILITY FOR KNEADING ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): Mehalketim chickens...[we may put water in their bran, but we may not knead it].
Question (Abaye): Question: Who is our Tana [who holds that putting water into bran is not considered kneading]?
Answer (Rabah): It is R. Yosi bar Yehudah:
(Beraisa - Rebbi): If Reuven put flour [into a trough] and Shimon put water, Shimon is liable [for kneading];
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah exempts, unless he [overtly] kneaded.
Question: Perhaps R. Yosi exempts only regarding flour, for it is Bar Givul (must be kneaded), but he is Mechayev regarding bran, for it suffices to add water (it mixes by itself)!
Answer: This is wrong:
(Beraisa - Rebbi): We may not put water in their bran;
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah permits.
(Beraisa #1): One may not knead Kali (parched flour);
Some permit this.
Question: Who is the latter Tana?
Answer (Rav Chisda): It is R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah - but he permits only with a Shinuy.
Question: What Shinuy does he do?
Answer (Rav Chisda): He kneads a small amount at a time.