FOOD PREPARATION ON YOM TOV
(Mishnah): If one did not grind the cumin before Shabbos...
(Beraisa): Things which may not be done for Milah on Shabbos may be done on Yom Tov, i.e. grinding cumin and mixing wine and oil.
Question (Abaye): Presumably, one may grind cumin on Yom Tov because it is fit to add to a Tavshil [to spice it] - wine and oil are also fitting on Shabbos for a Choleh (one who is mildly sick)!
(Beraisa): One may not mix wine and oil for a Choleh on Shabbos;
R. Shimon ben Elazar says that R. Meir permits.
R. Shimon ben Elazar: Once R. Meir had intestinal pain, we wanted to mix wine and oil for him - he did not allow us.
His Talmidim: If you do not rely on your opinion, it will become Batul (everyone will follow Chachamim)!
R. Meir: Even though I say one way and my colleagues argue, I never dared transgress their words.
Summation of question: This was R. Meir's stringency, but he permits others! (Presumably, our Stam Mishnah is like R. Meir.)
Answer: They are not mixed thoroughly for a Choleh - they must be mixed thoroughly for the sake of Milah.
Question: [For Milah, the Mishnah only allows putting them on separately -] we should be allowed to mix them like for a Choleh!
Answer: Indeed, this is what the Mishnah means when it says 'He puts the wine on by itself and the oil on by itself'! (If they are not mixed well, almost all the oil will be on top, it is like putting them on separately.)
(Beraisa): [On Yom Tov] one may not strain mustard in a mustard strainer; one may not sweeten it with a coal (by extinguishing the coal in it).
Question (Abaye): Why is this different than putting an egg in a mustard strainer, which a Mishnah permits?
Answer (Rav Yosef): That does not look like Borer (all of the egg passes through) - this looks like Borer (it is not really Borer, since also the Pesoles is edible).
(Beraisa #1): One may not sweeten it with a coal.
Contradiction (Beraisa #2): One may sweeten it with a coal.
Answer: It is permitted with a metal coal (one is never liable for extinguishing it), it is forbidden with a coal from wood.
Question (Abaye): Why is this different than roasting meat over coals (even though this extinguishes them, it is permitted for the sake of Ochel Nefesh)!
Answer (Rav Yosef): There, there is no alternative; here, there is. (Meat roasted from before Yom Tov is not as tasty - mustard sweetened before Yom Tov does not lose its taste.)
Question (Abaye): May one make cheese?
Answer (Rav Yosef): It is forbidden.
Question (Abaye): Why is this different than kneading?
Answer (Rav Yosef): There, there is no alternative; here, there is (a freshly baked dough is tastier - cheese made before Yom Tov is no worse than cheese made on Yom Tov);
Chachamim of Neharda'a say that cheese is good on the day it was made - they mean, it is good even on the day it was made (it is even better if made before)!
TEACHINGS OF ABAYE'S MOTHER
(Mishnah): One may not make a 'cloak' for the Ever.
Abaye's mother: One should fold up the hem of the 'cloak' near the opening so it will not touch the Ever, lest strands stick to the wound and castrate the baby when it is removed).
Abaye's [surrogate] mother made a pouch to go inside the cloak, reaching to half the cloak, to shield the wound from the strands of the hem.
(Abaye): If there is no cloak for a Milah, one should bring a worn out garment with a hem (this helps it cling to the Ever) and turn it inside out (lest strands stick to the wound).
Abaye's mother: If one cannot find a baby's anus, one should anoint him with oil and put him in the sun - [the hole is] where the oil is as clear as glass, he should tear it lengthwise and widthwise with the end of a barley;
He should not use a metal Kli, it would swell it.
Abaye's mother: If a baby cannot nurse, this is because his lips are too cold.
Question: What is the remedy for this?
Answer: One should put coals on a Kli, and put it by his mouth - his mouth will get warm and he will nurse.
Abaye's mother: If a baby's chest does not move when he breathes (Rashi; Aruch - he does not urinate), one fans him, this will solve the problem.
Abaye's mother: If a baby is not breathing well, one should bring the placenta born with him and smooth it on his skin.
Abaye's mother: If a baby is too thin, one should bring the placenta born with him and smooth it on his skin from the thin side to the thick, and vice-versa if he is bloated.
Abaye's mother: If a baby is red, this shows that his blood has not been absorbed (it is still between his skin and flesh) - one should delay Milah until his blood is absorbed [lest it all come out].
If he is yellow, this shows that he does not have enough blood yet - one should delay Milah until he has enough blood.
(Beraisa - R. Noson): I met two women, each had lost two sons through circumcision. The third babies were red and yellow, respectively. I counseled them to postpone the Milah until the blood was absorbed/came in - both babies survived, and were given my name.
WASHING THE BABY FOR THE MILAH ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): We may wash a baby before and after Milah; we sprinkle on him by hand, not from a Kli;
R. Elazar ben Azaryah says, one may wash a baby on the third day from Milah - "Va'Yhi va'Yom ha'Shelishi bi'Hyosam Ko'avim" (one is very weak on the third day).
We do not Mechalel Shabbos for [Milah of] a Safek [Nefel (stillborn baby)] or Androginus (one with male and female genitals);
R. Yehudah permits for an Androginus.
(Gemara) Question: 'We may wash' connotes normally (why does the Seifa forbid from a Kli)?
Answer #1 (Rav Yehudah and Rabah bar Avuha): The Seifa explains the Reisha:
We may wash a baby before and after Milah - we sprinkle by hand, not from a Kli.
Objection: (Rava): 'We may wash' connotes normally!
Answer #2 (Rava): We may wash a baby before and after Milah - on the day of Milah we wash normally; on the third day, if it is Shabbos, we sprinkle by hand, not from a Kli.
R. Elazar ben Azaryah permits washing [normally] on the third day - "Va'Yhi va'Yom ha'Shelishi..."
Support (for Rava - Beraisa): We may wash a baby before and after Milah - on the day of Milah we wash normally; on the third day, if it is Shabbos, we sprinkle by hand;
R. Elazar ben Azaryah permits washing [normally] on the third day if it is Shabbos - even though there is no proof, there is a hint - "Va'Yhi va'Yom ha'Shelishi..."
We sprinkle by hand, not with a cup, bowl or Kli.
This clause is according to the first Tana.
Question: What does it mean 'Even though there is no proof, there is a hint'?
Answer: It is not a proof because a baby's wound heals faster than an adult's.
A case occurred, and Rava permitted a man to wash normally on the first day. Rava became weak - he assumed that this was for ruling against Chachamim of the previous generation (Rav Yehudah and Rabah bar Avuha).
His Talmidim: A Beraisa supports you!
Rava: Our Mishnah supports them (Rashba - and the Beraisa is errant)!
(Mishnah - R. Elazar ben Azaryah): One may wash on the third day...
If the first Tana permits only sprinkling, this is good (Maharsha - according to Rashi below (d'I Salka Da'atach, without Maharshal's correction) he permits even this only on the first two days - nevertheless, R. Elazar does not say 'even on the third day', because the first Tana did not explicitly discuss the third day);
But if the first Tana permits washing on the first day and sprinkling on the third, R. Elazar should have said 'We may even wash'!
(Rav Dimi): The Halachah follows R. Elazar ben Azaryah.
WHAT IS PERMITTED FOR THE WOUND OF MILAH ON SHABBOS?
Question (Chachamim of Eretz Yisrael): Is it permitted to wash the entire body, or just the wound?
Answer (R. Yakov): One may put hot water on any wound - the Heter for Milah must be to wash the entire body.
(Rav): We do not refrain from putting hot water and oil on a wound on Shabbos.
Objection (Rav Yosef): For a regular wound we may only use water heated from before Shabbos - for Milah, we may use water heated on Shabbos!
Objection to objection (Rav Dimi): What is your source to say that they argue about using water heated on Shabbos - perhaps they discuss water heated from before Shabbos!
Abaye: Rav Yosef answered this before I had the chance!
Answer (Rav Yosef): There is mortal danger, surely we may use water heated on Shabbos!
(Ravin): The Halachah follows R. Elazar ben Azaryah - it is permitted even if the water was heated on Shabbos, even to wash the entire body, for there is mortal danger.
(Rav): We do not refrain from putting hot water and oil on a wound on Shabbos.
(Shmuel): One puts next to the wound, it drips down into the wound.
Question (against Rav - Beraisa): One may not put oil or hot water on a tuft to put on a wound on Shabbos (the decree against cures on Shabbos applies).
Answer: No, it is forbidden on account of squeezing.
Question (against Rav - Beraisa): One may not put oil or hot water on a tuft on a wound on Shabbos. (We should not be concerned for squeezing, since he need not move the tuft!)
Answer: Also that is forbidden on account of squeezing.
Support (for Shmuel - Beraisa): One may not put oil or hot water on a tuft on a wound on Shabbos; one puts next to the wound, it drips down into the wound.
(Beraisa): One may put a dry tuft or sponge on a wound (so it will not get scratched), but not a dry Gemi (soft reed) or bits of garments (these heal).
Question: The Beraisa contradicts itself regarding bits of garments (these are tufts)!
Answer: New tufts (that were never on a wound) are forbidden, old ones are permitted.
(Abaye): This teaches that [new] tufts heal.