PERMITTING DAVAR SHE'EINO MISKAVEN
Tana'im argue like Rava and Rav Safra:
(Beraisa - R. Yoshiyah): "Besar" - even if there is Tzara'as there, "Yimol";
R. Yonason says, we do not need the verse [to teach about Milah in its time] - since it overrides Shabbos, all the more so it overrides Tzara'as!
Version #1 (Beraisa - R. Yoshiyah): "Besar" - even if there is Tzara'as there, "Yimol".
Question: Why do we need a verse - he does not intend to cut the Tzara'as (just to circumcise), Davar she'Eino Miskaven is permitted!
Answer #1 (Abaye): He holds like R. Yehudah, who forbids Davar she'Eino Miskaven.
Answer #2 (Rava): The verse is needed even according to R. Shimon - R. Shimon agrees regarding a Pesik Reisha (it is as if he intends).
Question: Abaye agrees with this! (Why did he say that it is only like R. Yehudah?)
(Abaye and Rava): R. Shimon agrees regarding a Pesik Reisha.
Answer: After he heard this from Rava, he agreed with it.
Version #2 (Beraisa): "Hishamer b'Nega ha'Tzara'as Lishmor Me'od v'La'asos" - La'asos (to overtly cut) is forbidden, but one may work with a date shoot wrapped around his foot or carrying a load on a pole on his shoulder (as long as he does not intend to cut) - if the Tzara'as comes off, he is Tahor.
Question: Why do we need a verse - Davar she'Eino Miskaven is permitted!
Answer #1 (Abaye): He holds like R. Yehudah, who [elsewhere] forbids Davar she'Eino Miskaven.
Answer #2 (Rava): The verse is needed even according to R. Shimon - R. Shimon agrees regarding a Pesik Reisha.
Question: Abaye agrees with this!
(Abaye and Rava): R. Shimon agrees regarding a Pesik Reisha.
Answer: After he heard this from Rava, he agreed with it. (end of Version #2)
Question: According to Abaye [before he retracted], what does R. Shimon learn from "Besar"?
Answer (Rav Amram): This permits one who intends to cut his Tzara'as.
Question: This applies to "Besar" written regarding an adult - how can we answer for "Besar" written regarding an eight-day old?
Answer (Rav Mesharshiya): This permits a father who intends to cut his son's Tzara'as.
Question: If someone else [who is not concerned about the Tzara'as] can circumcise, the father should not be allowed! (The Rosh (Chulin 6:8) holds that Milah is primarily incumbent on the father, he cannot make a Shali'ach for this. Our Gemara seems to say someone else can do the Mitzvah! Shach (C.M. 372) - anyone can do the primary Mitzvah - there is an additional Mitzvah for the father himself to circumcise, to which Shlichus does not apply. The primary Mitzvah overrides the Lav and Ase of Tzara'as, the additional Mitzvah does not. Beis ha'Levi (1:10) - if one does not want to circumcise his son, everyone has a Mitzvah to circumcise him, therefore Shlichus does not apply, just like it does not apply to Milah of converts (Ramban).)
(Reish Lakish): If one can fulfill an Ase without transgressing a Lav, he must; if not, the Ase overrides the Lav.
Answer: The case is, there is no one else to circumcise.
THINGS THAT DO NOT OVERRIDE SHABBOS AND YOM TOV
(Beraisa): Milah overrides Yom Tov only in its time.
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer #1 (Chizkiyah) Question: It already says "V'Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker" (do not leave meat of the Korban Pesach until morning) - why does it repeat "[Veha'Nosar Mimenu] Ad Boker [ba'Esh Tisrofu]"?
Answer: This teaches that it is burned on the second morning (the 16th, it does not override Yom Tov - likewise, Milah after its time does not override Yom Tov.)
Answer #2 (Abaye): "Olas Shabas b'Shabato" - one may not offer an Olah of Chol on Shabbos or Yom Tov (e.g. if a Korban was slaughtered on Erev Shabbos or Erev Yom Tov, we may not offer its Eimurim at night - this is like Milah not in its time).
Answer #3 (Rava): "Hu Levado Ye'aseh Lachem" (only Melachas Ochel Nefesh is permitted on Yom Tov), not Machshirav (e.g. to build an oven) - all the more so, Milah after its time is forbidden.
Answer #4 (Rav Ashi): "Shabason" is an Ase [in addition to the Lav] forbidding Melachah on Yom Tov - an Ase (circumcision) does not override a Lav and an Ase.
(Mishnah - R. Akiva): The general rule is [a Melachah [for the sake of Milah] overrides Shabbos only if it cannot be done before Shabbos].
(Rav Yehudah): The Halachah follows R. Akiva.
R. Akiva taught similarly regarding Korban Pesach:
(Mishnah - R. Akiva): The general rule is - a Melachah [for Korban Pesach] overrides Shabbos only if it cannot be done before Shabbos, e.g. slaughter.
(Rav Yehudah): The Halachah follows R. Akiva.
Rav Yehudah needed to say this about both Mishnayos:
If he only taught regarding Milah, one might have thought that this is because there is no Kares (for not circumcising on day eight), but since there is Kares for not bringing Pesach, even Machshirim are permitted;
If he only taught regarding Pesach, one might have thought that Machshirim of Milah are permitted, for 13 covenants were made over Milah.
WHAT MAY BE DONE FOR MILAH ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): One may do all needs of Milah on Shabbos - cutting the foreskin, Pri'ah (pulling back the skin that covers the end of the Ever), sucking out the blood (without antiseptics, it is dangerous not to do so), putting on a bandage and cumin;
If one did not grind the cumin before Shabbos, one chews it with his teeth and puts it on (Tosfos - even though one may Mechalel Shabbos for the baby, we use a Shinuy when possible);
If one did not mix wine and oil (this was used to heal) before Shabbos, each is put by itself;
One may not make a 'cloak' for the Ever (a piece of cloth with a hole for the crown to go through, the cloth covers the Ever and prevents the skin pulled back from returning), but one may wrap a rag around it;
If one did not prepare it before Shabbos, one may wrap it on his finger and bring it, even from a different Chatzer.
(Gemara) Question: The Mishnah lists all needs of Milah - what is included by 'One may do all needs of Milah'?
Answer (Beraisa): [On Shabbos,] as long as one is circumcising, he may cut strands whether or not they are Me'akev (invalidate the Milah);
Once he removes his hand, he may go back to cut strands only if they are Me'akev.
Question: Who is the Tana of the Beraisa, who forbids going back to cut strands that are not are Me'akev?
Answer #1 (Rabah bar bar Chanah): It is R. Yishmael, son of R. Yochanan ben Brokah:
(Beraisa - R. Yishmael): If Erev Pesach is on Shabbos, we flay Korban Pesach until the chest (then stop to remove and deal with the Eimurim), we flay the rest at night;
Chachamim say, it is flayed entirely on Shabbos.
Rejection: R. Yishmael does not allow flaying it entirely because "Zeh Keli v'Anvehu" does not apply [after the Eimurim were removed], but it applies to the Mitzvah of Milah, he would permit non-essential strands!
(Beraisa): "Zeh Keli v'Anvehu" - be beautiful in front of Hash-m with Mitzvos - make a beautiful Sukah, Lulav, Tzitzis, and a beautiful Sefer Torah written Lishmo in nice ink with a nice quill by a professional scribe, and wrap it in nice silk!
Aba Sha'ul says, "V'Anvehu" [is like 'Ani v'Hu'] - resemble Him - just like He is gracious and merciful, you should be!
Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): It is R. Yosi:
(Mishnah): If the new moon was seen on Shabbos, whether or not it was clearly seen by everyone, witnesses desecrate Shabbos in any way necessary in order to come to Yerushalayim to testify;
R. Yosi says, if it was clearly seen by everyone, they may not desecrate Shabbos (presumably, Beis Din or others nearby saw it).
Rejection: R. Yosi forbids Chilul Shabbos when there is no need to override Shabbos at all - but when we must override Shabbos in any case [for Milah], he agrees that we may do the Mitzvah in its entirety.
Answer #3 (Chachamim of Neharda'a): It is Chachamim that argue with R. Yosi:
(Mishnah): Four Kohanim enter, two are holding Lechem ha'Panim (each holds a stack of six loaves), each of the other two holds a spoon of Levonah;
Four Kohanim enter before them, two of them remove [last week's] Lechem ha'Panim from the Shulchan, the other two remove the two spoons of Levonah.
As the removers pull the old bread off the Shulchan, those opposite them put the new bread on the Shulchan, immediately filling the void, to fulfill "Lefanai Tamid".
R. Yosi says, even if the latter put the new bread on after the old bread is totally off the Shulchan, this fulfills "Tamid". (He would similarly say that even if the Mohel removed his hand, he is 'Tamid' (constantly) engaged in circumcising - Chachamim would say he has stopped, and may go back only if the strands are Me'akev.)
(Beraisa): We cut strands [that are Me'akev] - if not, he is Chayav Kares.
Question: Who is Chayav Kares?
Answer #1 (Rav Kahana): The Mohel is Chayav Kares.
Objection (Rav Papa): He can say, I did half the job, you (others) can finish!
Answer #2 (Rav Papa): An adult [who left strands when circumcising himself] is Chayav Kares.
Objection (Rav Ashi): The Beraisa need not teach about an adult - it explicitly says "V'Arel Zachar Asher Lo Yimol [...v'Nichresah]"!
Defense of Answer #1 (Rav Ashi): Really, the Mohel is Chayav Kares;
The case is, he began to circumcise at the very end of Shabbos - he was warned that he would not have enough time to circumcise fully, nevertheless he began - he is Chayav Kares for wounding [without fulfilling the Mitzvah].
HEALING THE MILAH WOUND
(Mishnah): Sucking out the blood.
(Rav Papa): If a Mohel did not suck, this is dangerous [without antiseptics used today], we do not let him circumcise again.
Objection: This is obvious - since we Mechalel Shabbos to suck (extracting the blood is wounding), surely it is dangerous not to!
Answer: One might have thought that a pocket of blood is stored there [so sucking it is not wounding - if so, this could be permitted even if there was no danger] - Rav Papa teaches that this is not so, it is 'attached' [to the flesh, like regular blood];
It was taught with a bandage and cumin, it is like them - if they are not done, it is dangerous.
(Mishnah): Putting on a bandage.
Abaye's mother: The [ointment to put on a] bandage for all pains consists of seven parts of Chelev and one part of wax;
(Rava): It is wax and pitch of trees.
Rava taught this in Mechuza - the sons of Minyomi the doctor broke their Kelim (for now people could make this ointment themselves).
Rava (to Benei Minyomi): There is one matter I did not reveal - Shmuel taught that if one washes his face and does not dry it well, his face will develop boils (alternatively - crack or form a crust).
Question: If someone did so, what remedy is there?
Answer: He should wash it liberally in water in which beets were cooked.