MOVING FRAGMENTS ON SHABBOS
(Bar Hameduri): On Shabbos, one may move strands that came off a mattress.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer (Rava): The mattress itself is made to cover dirt - similarly, the strands are fitting to cover filth!
(R. Zeira): One may not move a worn out Talis on Shabbos.
(Abaye): He refers to rags less than three by three fingers, since they are not fit for rich or poor people.
(Beraisa - R. Meir): Shards of an oven are like regular Kelim, they may be moved in a Chatzer;
R. Yehudah says, they may not be moved.
R. Yosi testified in the name of R. Eliezer ben Yakov that shards of an oven may be moved on Shabbos, and that the cover of an oven does not need a handle [to be permitted to be moved].
Question: What do they argue about?
Answer #1 (Abaye): They argue like they argue in our Mishnah, about whether or not we require that the shards perform a use similar to the original Kli - R. Yehudah requires this, R. Meir does not.
Objection (Rava): If so, they should discuss fragments of a [any] Kli - why did the Beraisa specify an oven?!
Answer #2 (Rava): (A normal oven is a box open on bottom and attached to the ground; it is heated by a fire below.) They argue about shards of the following oven:
(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): If an oven was placed over the opening of a pit or cistern, and a rock was wedged between it and the wall [to hold it up]:
If a fire below will heat the oven [enough to bake], it is Tamei; if not, it is Tahor;
Chachamim say, since there is a way to heat it (from inside itself if it would be put on the ground) it is Tamei.
They argue about "Tanur v'Chirayim Yutatz Teme'im Hem u'Tme'im Yihyu Lachem":
R. Yehudah says, it is Tamei only if it requires Nesitzah (demolition) - since this oven need not be razed [to put it elsewhere], it is Tahor;
Chachamim expound "U'Tme'im Yihyu Lachem" - in any case.
Question: How do Chachamim expound "Yutatz"?
Answer: One might have thought that a proper oven, which is attached to the ground, is [Tahor] like the ground - the verse teaches that this is not so.
Question: How does R. Yehudah expound "U'Tme'im Yihyu Lachem"?
Answer: He expounds it like Rav Yehudah:
(Rav Yehudah): They argue about the first time it is heated - but once it was heated [while attached to the ground] it is Mekabel Tum'ah on any subsequent heating, even if it hangs from a camel's neck.
(Ula): Chachamim Metamei the first time it is heated, even if it hangs from a camel's neck.
Objection (Rav Ashi): If so, they should argue about an intact [detached] oven - since R. Yehudah does not consider it a Kli (he is Metaher), all the more so regarding shards!
Support of Answer #1 (Rav Ashi): Really, they argue about whether or not a use similar to the original Kli is required - the case is, the shards are [heated externally and] used for cooking like tiles; R. Meir addresses R. Yehudah according to R. Yehudah's reasoning:
I say that any use suffices for it to be Mekabel Tum'ah - granted, you require a use similar to the original Kli - you should agree that this is similar to an oven!
R. Yehudah: This is different - an oven is heated from its inside, these are heated externally; an oven stands upright [and bread is stuck to its walls], these are not upright (they rest on their width)!
(Beraisa): R. Yosi testified in the name of R. Eliezer ben Yakov that shards of an oven may be moved on Shabbos, and that the cover of an oven does not need a handle.
Question (Ravina): We move covers of ovens of Masa Machsiya, which do not have handles - like which Tana is this?
Answer: It is like R. Eliezer ben Yakov.
PREPARATION OF AN OBJECT FOR USE ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): If a rock in a dry hollow pumpkin (used to weigh it down, in order to draw water from a well) does not fall out, we may use it to draw water; if not, not;
If a vine branch is tied to a flask used to draw water, one may draw with it on Shabbos.
('Window' refers to a hole in the wall.) R. Eliezer says, if a window stopper (a board or curtain used to cover the opening) is tied [to the wall] and hangs (does not drag on the ground), one may use it to close a window; if not, not;
Chachamim say, in either case one may use it to close.
(Gemara - Mishnah): If a rock is on top of a barrel, one tilts the barrel and the rock falls.
(Rabah citing R. Ami citing R. Yochanan): This is only if he forgot it - if he intentionally left it on, the barrel is a Bosis for Isur.
(Rav Yosef citing R. Asi citing R. Yochanan): This is only if he forgot it - if he intentionally left it on, the rock is a cover (it may be moved normally).
Question (Rabah, against himself - Mishnah): If a rock in a dry hollow pumpkin does not fall out, we may use it to draw water.
Answer (Rabah): There, since it fits tightly, it is like a wall of the pumpkin.
Question (Rav Yosef, against himself - Mishnah): If the rock falls out, we may not use it to draw.
Answer (Rav Yosef): There, since he did not make it fit tightly, he shows that he was Mevatel it (he does not consider it to be a wall).
Question: What do they argue about?
Answer: Rabah requires an action to be done [to make it a Kli], Rav Yosef does not require an action
This is like R. Ami and R. Asi taught elsewhere:
(R. Chanina): A case occurred, Rebbi came upon a row of rocks and told his Talmidim to have intent to sit on them tomorrow [Shabbos] - he did not require an action;
(R. Yochanan): He required an action.
Question: What did he do?
Answer #1 (R. Ami): He told them to arrange them (because they may not move them on Shabbos);
Answer #2 (R. Asi): He told them to clean the mud off them (this permits to move them on Shabbos).
(R. Yosi ben Sha'ul): It was a row of beams (not rocks);
(R. Yochanan ben Sha'ul): It was a pole used by ships [to feel if the water is too shallow].
The opinion that it was a ship pole agrees that this would suffice for beams - but the opinion that it was beams would not permit a ship pole so easily, since people are adamant that it not get ruined [they fix a place for it].
(Mishnah): If a vine branch is tied...
Inference: If it is not tied, one may not draw with it on Shabbos.
Suggestion: Our Mishnah is unlike R. Shimon ben Gamliel:
(Beraisa): If one cut Chariyos (hard, leafless Lulav branches) for the sake of [fire] wood, and then decided to use them to sit on, he must tie them;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, he need not tie them.
Answer #1 (Rav Sheshes): It is even like R. Shimon ben Gamliel - the case is the vine branches are connected to the vine.
Question: It is forbidden to use something attached to the ground!
Answer: He uses them within three Tefachim of the ground (this is permitted).
Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): The vine branches are detached - if they are not tied, it is forbidden lest one cut them to size.
ADDING TO AN OHEL ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): If a window stopper...
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): All agree that one may not make a new temporary Ohel (roof) on Yom Tov, there is no need to say it is forbidden on Shabbos - they argue about adding to an Ohel:
R. Eliezer forbids adding on Yom Tov, there is no need to say that he forbids on Shabbos;
Chachamim permit adding on Shabbos, there is no need to say that they permit on Yom Tov.