WHEN ONE BRINGS A KORBAN FOR EACH MELACHAH
(Mishnah): If he remembered that the day is Shabbos...
Question: What is the difference between the Reisha (Shigegas Shabbos and Zadon Melachos, he is only liable once) and the Seifa (Shigegas Melachos and Zadon Shabbos, he is liable for each Melachah)?
Answer #1 (Rav Safra): In the Reisha, had he been told that it is Shabbos he would have refrained; in the Seifa, had he been told that he is doing a Melachah he would have refrained.
Objection (Rav Nachman): He would refrain upon hearing that it is Shabbos only because he knows that he is doing a Melachah; he would refrain upon hearing that he is doing a Melachah only because he knows that it is Shabbos!
Answer #2 (Rav Nachman): The Torah obligates a Korban on account of Shegegah - forgetting that today is Shabbos is one Shegagah, forgetting the Melachos is many Shegagos.
(Mishnah): ...He is liable one Korban for every Av Melachah.
Question: What is the source for Chiluk Melachos (that one is Chayav a Korban for each)?
Answer (Shmuel): "Mechalaleha Mos Yumas" - the Torah obligates many deaths for one desecration (this will be explained).
Question: The verse discusses Mezid transgression!
Answer: Since we do not need it to teach about Mezid (we know this from "Kol ha'Oseh Vo Melachah Yumas"), we use it to teach about Shogeg;
"Mos Yumas" refers to [Korbanos, which cost] money.
Question: Shmuel should learn from R. Noson's source for Chiluk Melachos!
(Beraisa - R. Noson) Question: What do we learn from "Lo Seva'aru Esh b'Chol Moshvoseichem b'Yom ha'Shabbos"?
Answer: It says "Eleh ha'Devarim...Sheshes Yomim Te'aseh Melachah" - this alludes to 39 Melachos told to Moshe on Sinai (Devarim (plural) teaches two, the 'Hei' teaches one more, the Gematri'a of Eleh is 36);
Suggestion: Perhaps if one did all of them in one Helam he brings only one Korban!
Rejection #1: "Be'Charish uva'Katzir Tishbos" (it is as if there are separate commands to cease from plowing and from reaping).
Objection: Perhaps one who plowed and reaped brings two Korbanos, but one does not bring separate Korbanos for other Melachos!
Rejection #2 - Question: "Lo Seva'aru Esh..." - why is this needed (all Melachos are forbidden)?
Answer: It was taught by itself to teach about the other Melachos - burning is an Av Melachah, one is liable for it by itself, the same applies to all Avos.
Answer: Shmuel holds like R. Yosi, who says that the verse teaches that burning is only a Lav:
(Beraisa - R. Yosi): Burning was taught by itself to teach that it is only a Lav (without Misah or Kares);
R. Noson says, it was taught by itself to Mechalek.
Question: Shmuel should learn from R. Yosi's source for Chiluk Melachos!
(Beraisa - R. Yosi): "V'Asah me'Achas me'Henah" - sometimes one is liable Achas (one Chatas) for many transgressions, sometimes he is liable Henah, a Chatas for each transgression. (This does not explain why it says "Me'Achas me'Henah".)
(R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): He also expounds the 'Mem' in "me'Achas" and the 'Mem' in "me'Henah" (this will be explained in (ii) - (iii)):
Achas is sometimes Henah (he is liable many times for one transgression), Henah is sometimes Achas (he is liable once for many transgressions);
Achas alludes to [a full Melachah, e.g. writing] 'Shimon'; me'Achas alludes to [a partial Melachah, e.g. writing] 'Shem' (the first two letters of Shimon; Rashi - he is liable because this is also a name or word Me'iri - he would be liable even if it was not a word);
Henah alludes to Avos Melachah, me'Henah alludes to Toldos.
Achas is sometimes Henah (many Korbanos for one transgression, e.g. Chilul Shabbos) - Zadon Shabbos and Shigegas Melachos; Henah is sometimes Achas (one Korban for many transgressions) - Zadon Melachos and Shigegas Shabbos.
Answer: Shmuel holds that "me'Achas me'Henah" does not justify expounding like R. Yosi.
ONE WHO FORGOT BOTH
Question (Rava): If one was Shogeg about both (Shabbos and the Melachos), what is the law?
Answer #1 (Rav Nachman): Because he was Shogeg about Shabbos, he is only liable once.
Objection (Rava): [It is just as reasonable to say that] he was Shogeg about the Melachos, he should be liable for each Melachah!
Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): If he ceased [to do the Melachah, and now seeks atonement] because he found out that it is Shabbos, this is Shigegas Shabbos, he is liable only once;
If he ceased because he found out that the Melachah is forbidden, this is Shigegas Melachos, he is liable for each.
Objection (Ravina): He ceased upon hearing that it is Shabbos only because he also remembers that the Melachah is forbidden; he ceased upon hearing that the Melachah is forbidden only because he remembers that it is Shabbos!
Rather, it makes no difference why he ceased.
Answer #3 (Mishnah): There are 39 Avos Melachos.
Question: Why do we need to know the number?
Answer (R. Yochanan): This teaches that is one did all of them in one Helam, he is liable for each.
Question: In what case is he liable for each Melachah?
Answer #1: If he is liable for each when he forgot both, we can say that he forgot both;
But if he is liable only once when he forgot both, how can we answer?
Answer #2: It was Zadon Shabbos and Shigegas Melachos.
Question: R. Yochanan obligates a Korban for one who remembered the Lav but forgot that there is Kares - he could say, this was the case;
But Reish Lakish obligates only when he was Shogeg even about the Lav - if he forgot all the Melachos, how did he remember Shabbos?!
(Summation of answer: We must say that Reish Lakish learns like Answer #1; we have no source that R. Yochanan argues about forgetting both!)
Rejection (and Answer #3 to Question (f:3)): He remembered that it is forbidden to leave the Techum - the Mishnah is like R. Akiva, who forbids this mid'Oraisa.
(Rava): If one reaped and grinded k'Grogeres (the volume of a dried fig, the Shi'ur to be liable for Melachah involving food) amidst Zadon Melachos and Shigegas Shabbos, and later reaped and grinded k'Grogeres amidst Zadon Shabbos and Shigegas Melachos, and then found out about [one or both of] his first transgressions (amidst Shigegas Shabbos), and separated a Korban (it atones for both Melachos):
If he later found out about his latter transgressions (Shigegas Melachah, before offering the Korban), the first reaping is Gorer the second (causes it to get atonement along with its atonement); the first grinding is Gorer the second.