[107a - 44 lines; 107b - 48 lines]

1)[line 2]תחת כנפיוTACHAS KENAFAV- underneath his cloak

2)[line 21]המפיס מורסאHA'MEFIS MURSA- one who squeezes an abscess

3)[line 21]לעשות לה פהLA'ASOS LAH PEH- to make an opening for it (for the removal of any puss which forms in the future)

4)[line 22]לחהLEICHAH- puss

PEREK #14 SHEMONEH SHERATZIM

5)[line 30]שמנה שרציםSHEMONEH SHERATZIM (The Eight Scampering Creatures that are Sources of Tum'ah)

(a) A Sheretz (a crawling pest, see Vayikra 11:29-38), even if it or a part of it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a). It makes a person or object Tamei through Maga (contact), whether the Sheretz was touched willingly or unwillingly. The person who becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah of the Beis Ha'Mikdash. However, he can immediately immerse in a Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah.

(b)HaSh-m showed Moshe all Sheratzim, so that he could distinguish between the Tehorim and the Teme'im. The eight Sheratzim that are Teme'im that are mentioned in the Torah are (based on Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan's "The Living Torah" and other sources):

1.CHOLED - weasel [alt., a martin or an ermine (ARUCH), a rat (TARGUM, TOSFOS YOM TOV), mole or mole-rat (ARUCH), or field mouse (TARGUM YONASAN)]. According to the Gemara, it is a predatory animal that bores under the ground and undermines houses.

2.ACHBAR - mouse; some sources appear to include also the rat

3.TZAV - toad (RASHI Vayikra 11:29, Nidah 56a; this is also evident from the Mishnah in Taharos 5:1 which implies that it is similar in appearance to a frog — see Rishonim there). Alternatively, tortoise (ME'AM LOEZ, TIFERES YISRAEL to Taharos ibid.). According to the Septuagint it is the land crocodile (perhaps the monitor, see KO'ACH; a Talmudic source (Chulin 127a) indeed associates it with the salamander and snake). Others identify it with the ferret.

4.ANAKAH - hedgehog; alt., beaver (RADAK). [The Septuagint translates it as a mole, shrew mouse or field mouse.] Rabeinu Sa'adya Gaon translates it as a gecko, which is up to five inches long with a soft speckled hide; "Anachah" denotes groaning and the gecko makes a groaning sound.

5.KO'ACH - a lizard (RADAK quoting RASHI) [chameleon, according to the Septuagint.] From the translation of others it would appear to be the monitor or monitor lizard, the largest reptile in the Holy Land, growing as long as four feet. Living on the coast, the Negev, and Aravah, it eats rodents and reptiles (RADAK, RABEINU SA'ADYA GAON).

6.LETA'AH - lizard; alt., the white lizard, or the great gecko.

7.CHOMET - snail (RASHI) [alt., a lizard or the skink, a lizard with small legs of which there are four varieties in the Holy Land]

8.TINSHEMES - mole (Rashi Chulin 63a) [alt., a large-headed lizard that burrows underground, probably a type of gecko]

6)[line 30]הצדןHA'TZADAN (TZAD)

The Melachah of Tzad involves restricting the movement of an undomesticated living creature for its use.

7)[last line]אין עור אלא למה שמנו חכמיםEIN OR ELA L'MAH SHE'MANU CHACHAMIM- the only Sheratzim with hides are the ones which the Chachamim enumerated; i.e. Anakah, Ko'ach, Leta'ah, and Chomet

107b----------------------------------------107b

8)[line 3]אמר ליה רבאAMAR LEI RAVA- (This is the beginning of the answer to the Gemara's question — TOSFOS DH Amar)

9)[line 13]שרצים שיש להם עורותSHERATZIM SHE'YESH LAHEM OROS- the [four] Sheratzim that have hides; i.e., Choled, Achbar, Tzav, Tinshemes

10)[line 14]שאינה חוזרתSHE'EINAH CHOZERES- which does not revert to normal skin

11)[line 15]נצרר הדםNITZRAR HA'DAM- if the blood forms a black-and-blue mark

12)[line 17]גישתאGISHTA- essence, i.e. that its hide is thick

13)[line 20]"היהפוך כושי עורו ...?""HA'YAHAFOCH KUSHI ORO ...?"- "Can the Kushite change his skin, or the leopard his spots?" (Yirmeyahu 13:23) - This is the translation of the Mefarshim to the verse. Our Gemara (and Rashi to Shemos 21:25) translates as follows: "Can the Kushite change his skin or alter his bruises?" The word "v'Namer" is read as a verb, with poetic license.

14)[line 21]ריקמי ריקמיRIKMEI RIKMEI- full of colored spots

15)[line 22]גווניוGAVANAV- its colors

16)[line 24]כינהKINAH- a louse

17)[line 25]אינה פרה ורבהEINAH PARAV V'RAVAH- it does not procreate sexually

18)[line 29]קרני ראמיםKARNEI RE'EIMIM- the name of a giant beast (Rashi Avodah Zarah 3b)

19)[line 30]ביצי כיניםBEITZEI KINIM- lice eggs. At this point, our Gemara assume that this refers to newly hatched lice.

20)[line 30]מינא הוא דמיקרי ביצי כיניםMINA HU D'MIKRI BEITZEI KINIM- it is a tiny species of insect named "Beitzei Kinim"

21)[line 30]טפוייTIPUYEI- the name of a small insect

22)[line 31]פרעושPAR'OSH- a flea

23)[line 42]השולהHA'SHOLEH- one who pulls out

24)[line 42]סנפיריוSENAPIRAV- its fins

25)[line 43]דעבד ריריD'AVAD RIREI- strands of a sticky substance stretch from the fish and adhere to the fingers when the fish is touched

26)[line 44]דלדלDILDEL- he detached

27)[line 46]כשותאKESHUSA- (O.F. homlon) hops

28)[line 46]היזמיHIZMEI- (O.F. ronce) prickly shrubs or trees

29)[line 46]היגיHIGEI- (O.F. aiglentier) prickly bushes

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