[22a - 41 lines; 22b - 33 lines]
(a)Jewish males above the age of thirteen are commanded to sit in a Sukah (a small hut or booth) for the seven days of the holiday of Sukos, as it states, "ba'Sukos Teishevu Shiv'as Yamim" - "You shall sit in Sukos for seven days" (Vayikra 23:42). Women are exempt because it is a Mitzvas Aseh sheha'Zeman Gerama. Sleeping, eating meals and all respectable daily tasks must be done in the Sukah instead of in one's house. Eating snacks and doing temporary duties are permissible outside of the Sukah.
(b)The main part of the Sukah is the roof, or Sechach, for which the Sukah is named. The Sechach is taken from materials that once grew in the ground such as cut branches, wood or bamboo. They must be detached at the time that the Sukah is built, and they cannot be Mekabel Tum'ah (receive Tum'ah, Halachic impurity; see Background to Nazir 54:13). If they have any Beis Kibul (a part that acts as a container; see Background to Nidah 58:1), they are invalid, since utensils are Mekabel Tum'ah.
(c)The Sukah may not be less than ten Tefachim or more than twenty Amos high. The length and width may not be less than seven Tefachim. At least three walls are required, but as long as two adjacent walls are complete, a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai states that the third wall need not be wider than a Tefach (see RAMBAM Hilchos Sukah 4:2).
(a)A Mavoy is an alleyway that is enclosed on three sides. Many courtyards are accessible through this alleyway, and the residents of these courtyards pass through the Mavoy on their way to the Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain). (The term "Mavoy" is taken from the verse (Shoftim 1:24) which describes the "Mevo ha'Ir" - "entrance to the city.") Although mid'Oraisa a Mavoy is considered a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) and thus one may carry within it, the Chachamim prohibited carrying in a Mavoy for a distance of more than four Amos. They made this decree since many families make use of a single Mavoy, and one might come to confuse a Mavoy with a Reshus ha'Rabim.
(b)Carrying in a Mavoy is permitted if a Lechi is placed vertically against one of the walls at the entrance to the Mavoy. A Lechi may be a pole, a plank, or any other object that is at least ten Tefachim high. It serves either as a Mechitzah (a fourth wall), or as a Heker (reminder) to signal where the Reshus ha'Yachid ends and the Reshus ha'Rabim begins. (Eruvin 5a, 15a).
(c)Another method of permitting carrying in a Mavoy is through a Korah (a one-Tefach-wide beam). The Korah is placed horizontally across the top of the entrance to the Mavoy, and serves either as a Mechitzah (a fourth wall) or as a Heker (reminder) to signal where the Reshus ha'Yachid ends and the Reshus ha'Rabim begins (see Insights to Eruvin 2a, and Graphic #1).
3)[line 13]להרצות מעותL'HARTZOS MA'OS- to count money (coins)
4)[line 17]יכסהYECHASEH (KISUY HA'DAM)
There is a Mitzvah to cover the blood of all birds and Kosher non-farm animals (Chayos) that are slaughtered, as it states in Vayikra (17:13) "v'Ish Ish... Asher Yatzud Tzeid Chayah O Of Asher Ye'achel, v'Shafach Es Damo v'Chisahu b'Afar" - "And any person... who shall capture game consisting of Kosher non-farm animals, or Kosher birds that are eaten, he shall spill its blood and cover it with earth." The blood must be covered from above and below with earth or any similar granular substance.
5)[line 20]להסתפקL'HISTAPEK- to use for oneself (lit. to supply oneself)
6)[line 20]נויי סוכהNOYEI SUKAH- food used as decorations for the Sukah
7)[line 22]מריה דאברהם!MAREI D'AVRAHAM!- Master of Avraham! (exclamation)
8)[line 24]עיטרהITRAH- he adorned it
9)[line 24]קרמיםKERAMIM- (O.F. ovrez) material adorned with colorful needlework
10)[line 25]סדינין המצוייריןSADININ HA'METZUYARIN- sheets adorned with colorful designs
11)[line 25]אפרסקיןAFARSEKIN- peaches. (According to Y. Feliks, in Plant World of the Bible, Ramat Gan 1968, the correct Girsa should be APASTEKIN, which are a type of nut, such as the Pistachio. Since peaches are a summer fruit, they are not available on Sukos.)
12)[line 26]פרכילי ענביםPARCHILEI ANAVIM- twigs with clusters of grapes
13)[line 26]עטרות של שבליםATAROS SHEL SHIBOLIM- wreaths made of stalks of grain
14)[line 30]אבוהון דכולהו דםAVUHON D'CHULHU DAM- the source for all of them is the Mitzvah of Kisuy ha'Dam (covering the blood; see above, entry #4)
15)[line 33]כרבי שמעון בגרירהK'REBBI SHIMON B'GEREIRAH
(a)An act which is done for a certain purpose (which will be accomplished without transgressing a Melachah), but which may result in a Melachah being inadvertently performed, it is called a Davar she'Eino Miskavein. The example brought in our Gemara is dragging a bench or chair on soft ground, where a furrow may possibly be created while dragging. (Digging a furrow is included in the Melachah of Choresh, plowing). Rebbi Yehudah prohibits performing such an action, since it may result in a Melachah. Rebbi Shimon disagrees, claiming that even though a Melachah may result from this action, since the Melachah will come about without intent, the action is permitted. Rebbi Shimon therefore permits a person to drag a bench across a dirt floor as long as he does not intend to make a furrow.
(b)Rebbi Shimon and Rebbi Yehudah disagree only if it is not clear that a furrow will be created (i.e., a Melachah will be done). If it is inevitable for a furrow to be created, the act is prohibited even according to Rebbi Shimon - even though the person dragging the bench is not the least bit interested in the furrow, and does not intend to create it. Such a situation, in which a Melachah will inevitably be accomplished, is referred to as "Pesik Reishei v'Lo Yamus."
(c)A person must have specific intent to do a Melachah on Shabbos in order to be liable for punishment or to be required to bring a Korban. Therefore, if a person drags a bench and a furrow does result, even Rebbi Yehudah will agree that the person who dragged it is not obligated to bring a Korban, since the furrow was created accidentally. Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon argue only as to whether it is permitted in the first place to perform an action that may result in a Melachah.
16)[line 37]חריץCHARITZ- furrow, groove
17)[line 38]לא תציתו ליהLO TATZISU LEI- do not listen to him
18)[line 39]קא מכחיש מצוהKA MAKCHISH MITZVAH- he diminishes the Mitzvah (by taking away some of the oil; it also appears as if he is taking away some of the light)
19)[line 1]מעשר שניMA'ASER SHENI- (a) coins on which Ma'aser Sheni was redeemed (RASHI); (b) fruit that is Ma'aser Sheni (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 3:19, based on the Tosefta Ma'aser Sheni 1:1. It seems that the Rambam is not Gores the words "Sela Shel," which is also the Girsa of the Vilna Ga'on to Daf 22a.)
20)[line 1]אין שוקלין כנגדוEIN SHOKLIN K'NEGDO- it is forbidden to weigh [coins of Chulin] against them
21)[line 4]קינסאKINSA- a thin stick of wood
22)[line 6]לא יכוין משקלותיוLO YECHAVEN MISHKELOSAV- (a) lest he discover that the coins of Chulin weighed more than he expected or were of better quality than he expected, and he decide not to redeem the coins of Ma'aser Sheni on them (RASHI); (b) lest he use the fruits as a standard weight for a month or more, not realizing that their weight is constantly decreasing. He may come to weigh out coins to redeem other Ma'aser Sheni, and the coins will be of insufficient weight because of the drop in weight of the first Ma'aser Sheni fruits. He will then redeem the other Ma'aser Sheni for less than its value (RAMBAM ibid., as explained by Mahari Kurkus).
23)[line 8]"מחוץ לפרוכת העדות יערוך [אותו אהרון]""MI'CHUTZ L'FAROCHES HA'EDUS YA'AROCH [OSO AHARON]" (Vayikra 24:3)- "[Aharon] shall arrange them (the lamps of the Menorah) outside of the curtain (Paroches) of testimony
24)[line 11]לאורוL'ORO- (a) by His (HaSh-m's) light; (b) by its (the cloud pillar's) light (TOSFOS DH v'Chi)
25)[line 13]כמדת חברותיהK'MIDAS CHAVROSEHA- the same measure as the other lamps
26a)[line 14]ממנה היה מדליקMIMENAH HAYAH MADLIK
The Ner ha'Ma'aravi remained lit during the time that Bnei Yisrael wandered in the desert. The other lamps were lit in the evening from the existing Ner ha'Ma'aravi.
b)[line 14]ובה היה מסייםU'VAH HAYAH MESAYEM - and with it he would conclude
(a)According to Rashi, this refers to the Hatavah (preparation) of the lamps. The Kohen cleaned out the ashes and left-over oil (the process called Dishun) from the lamps in the morning after they went out. He replaced them with fresh oil and wicks. Since the Ner ha'Ma'aravi remained burning all day, its Hatavah was done last, in the evening before the lamps were lit again. The Kohen would lift the burning wick or place it in a bowl until he replaced the oil and wick, which he lit from the still-burning wick. He then lit the other lamps from it.
(b)Tosfos DH u'Vah, citing Riva, asks that if it was possible to light the other lamps from the existing Ner ha'Ma'aravi by removing the burning wick from its lamp, the Gemara no longer has a question on Rav. The Mitzvah is neither slighted nor diminished. Tosfos claims that it was impossible to remove the wick without it becoming extinguished. The Kohen would light the other candles from the still-burning Ner ha'Ma'aravi. It was then extinguished, its oil and wick were replaced, and it was lit from the other lamps. Tosfos concludes that the phrase "u'Vah Hayah Mesayem" means that the Ner ha'Ma'aravi was the last lamp of Hadlakah (to be lit).
27)[line 16]קשיא בין למאן דאמרKASHYA BEIN L'MAN D'AMAR- Rav himself says here that the wicks of the Menorah were lit one from another, which would seem to contradict his statement that the wicks of Chanukah may not be lit one from another.