[16a - 21 lines; 16b - 37 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

[1] Gilyon ha'Shas 16a DH Avdu Behu עבדו בהו

The words "Nidah 30a"

should be "Nidah 34a"

[2] Gemara 16b [line 8]:

"Ma'aseh b'Shal Tziyon" מעשה בשל ציון

In Dikdukei Sofrim #80 and the Chidushei ha'Ran, this appears as one word "Shaltziyon" (and there are those who pronounce it "Shelatziyon"). She is also known as Shelomtzion ha'Malka. It seems that she was the wife of Yanai ha'Melech, and the sister of Shimon ben Shetach (Berachos 48a), the Tana who made the decree mentioned in our Sugya. She was also known as Salome Alexandra.


1)[line 1]כלי נתרKLEI NESER- (a) utensils made from the crystals of alum (RASHI); (b) utensils stuck together with alum (ARUCH)

2)[line 2]מיטמאין ומטמאיןMITAM'IN U'METAM'IN- they may become Tamei and may make the objects inside them Teme'im

3)[line 3]מאחוריהןME'ACHOREIHEN- from the inside of their stands

4)[line 7]יחזרו לטומאתן ישנהYACHZERU L'TUM'ASAN YESHANAH

(a)Metal utensils that become Teme'im (see next entry) need to be immersed in a Mikvah. If they are pierced or broken and are no longer useful, they become Tehorim. Shimon ben Shetach decreed that when broken metal utensils that are Teme'im are rebuilt, they return to their previous status of Tum'ah.

(b)The Gemara (16b) gives three reasons for his decree: (1) so that Mei Chatas (the water that contains the ashes of the Parah Adumah) not become obsolete. For example, a person owns a utensil which comes in contact with a dead body. It must be sprinkled with Mei Chatas on the third and seventh days of the Taharah process. He would rather pierce it, fix it, and be able to use his utensil on the same day that it became Tamei; (2) lest people pierce their utensils with a hole less than the required size to render them Tehorim, and mistakenly think that they have rendered them Tehorim; (3) lest people think that a utensil that becomes Tamei (through contact with Tum'ah other than a dead body) can be immersed in a Mikvah and used immediately, without waiting for nightfall.

(c)The Gemara asks with regard to glassware: even though they have been broken in the interim (which renders them Tehorim), why do they not revert to their previous status of Tum'ah when they are rebuilt, as is the case with metal utensils?


(a)Six types of metal utensils which are able to become Tamei are listed in the Torah (Bamidbar 31:22). These are utensils made of gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, and lead.

(b)Unlike utensils made of wood, cloth, or earthenware, metal utensils can become Tamei even if they are flat and do not have a receptacle.

(c)If metal utensils become Tamei, they can be made Tahor either through immersion in a Mikvah or by being pierced or broken so that they are no longer useful.

(d)The Rabanan instituted that if Tamei metal utensils are broken and then welded together or remolded from the original metal, they return to their previous status of Tum'ah as though they had never been broken (see previous entry).

6)[line 17]אחיתו לה רבנן טומאהACHISU BAH RABANAN TUM'AH- the Chachamim decreed that their previous Tum'ah should return to them


7)[line 2]נראה תוכו כברוNIR'EH TOCHO K'VARO- (a) since its inner surface is visible from the outside, the outer surface has the same laws as the inner surface, and does become Tamei, unlike the outer surface of earthenware utensils (RASHI); (b) any Tum'ah which is on its outer surface appears to be inside; it therefore has the same laws as the inner surface (RABEINU CHANANEL)

8)[line 10]צורףTZOREF- a smith; smelter

9)[line 10]ריתכןRITCHAN- (O.F. solder) he soldered them

10)[line 11]משום גדר מי חטאתMISHUM GEDER MEI CHATAS- for a safeguard for the law of Mei Chatas; lest the Mitzvah of sprinkling Mei Chatas (the water that contains the ashes of the Parah Adumah) be forgotten (see above, entry #4b:1)

11)[line 18]רצפינהו מרצףRATZFINHU MIRTZAF- that he totally smashed them

12)[line 20]הצינורHA'TZINOR- the pipe or gutter that was formed by setting a beam in the ground and hewing a channel into it, which is used to lead rainwater into a Mikvah

13)[line 22]כלי גלליםKLEI GELALIM- utensils made from animal dung (RASHI throughout Shas; here Rashi appears to translate Gelalim as marble). See Insights to the Daf.

14a)[line 28]קישור עביםKISHUR AVIM- when the clouds are gathered together before a rain

b)[line 29]פיזור עביםPIZUR AVIM- when the clouds are scattered

15)[line 34]בצרי להוBATZREI LEHU- there are less [than eighteen]

16)[line 35]בנות כותים נדות מעריסתןBNOS KUSIM NIDOS ME'ARISASAN

(a)The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid or not. After the times of the Mishnah, they were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim.

(b)The Chachamim decreed that the daughters of the Kusim have the status of Nidos from birth. TOSFOS (Nidah 32a, DH Rebbi Meir) explains the disagreement of Rebbi Meir and Rebbi Yosi as to the nature of the decree. According to Rebbi Yosi, the Rabanan gave Benos Kusim the status of Nidos in order to prevent us from mingling with them. According to Rebbi Meir, the Rabanan gave them the status of Nidos from an early age because the Kusim did not accept the Torah Law that a one-day-old girl becomes a Nidah through a discharge of blood, and thus we suspect every Bas Kusi of having had a discharge of blood. See Insights to Nidah 31:2.

17)[line 36]מביאין את הטומאהMEVI'IN ES HA'TUM'AH (TUM'AH: OHEL HA'TUM'AH)

Any covered space that is one Tefach by one Tefach square and one Tefach high is considered an "Ohel." If a k'Zayis from a corpse is anywhere in an Ohel, Tum'ah spreads out in all directions to fill the entire Ohel but remains inside the Ohel. Any people, metal utensils (covered or uncovered), food and drink in the Ohel become Tamei. However, Klei Cheres become Tamei only when Tum'ah enters them. Therefore, when they are covered with a Tzamid Pasil (a tight seal) they cannot become Tamei even if they are in the Ohel.

18)[line 37]בעובי המרדעOVI HA'MARDEI'A- the width of the handle of a plow, which has a circumference of a Tefach