[15a - 44 lines; 15b - 31 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Rashi 15a DH Lismoch ד"ה לסמוך:
The words "Pelugta Hi d'Veis Shamai u'Veis Hillel" פלוגתא היא דבית שמאי ובית הלל
should be "Pelugta Hi d'Shamai v'Hillel" פלוגתא היא דשמאי והלל
1)[line 3]הושווHUSHVU- they agreed
2)[line 6]קב חלהKAV CHALAH - The Tana'im disagree as to the amount of flour needed for the Mitzvah of Chalah. A table of volume equivalents follows:
1 Eifah = 3 Se'ah
1 Se'ah = 2 Hin
1 Hin = 3 Kav
1 Kav = 4 Lug
1 Log = 6 Beitzim
1 Beitzah = approx. 57.6 cc or 1.95 fl. oz.
Whenever a person kneads dough made from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye, or spelt), he must separate a small portion to be given to the Kohen, as specified in Bamidbar 15:17-21. This portion is called Chalah. The requirement to separate Chalah with a Berachah applies only to dough made from the volume of 43.2 Beitzim of grain (about 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters). An amount about half that much requires Chalah to be separated without a Berachah. A baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while an ordinary homeowner must separate 1/24.
4)[line 8]משהגדילו המדותMISHE'HIGDILU HA'MIDOS- when the measures were enlarged (i.e., when more was charged for items due to depreciation of coinage)
5)[line 11]מים שאוביםMAYIM SHE'UVIM
Only water which never entered a vessel (non-drawn water) may be used to fill a Mikvah. Once there are already 40 Se'ah of such water in the Mikvah, drawn water may be added. Before there are 40 Se'ah in the Mikvah, if three Lugim of drawn water fell into the Mikvah they render the Mikvah invalid.
6)[line 14]גרדיים משער האשפהGARDIYIM MI'SHA'AR HA'ASHPAH- weavers from the area of Dung Gate, through which all the garbage would be removed from the city
7)[line 18]דיין שעתןDAYAN SHAITAN
(a)The Mishnah in Maseches Nidah (Daf 2a) discusses the case of a woman who finds Dam Nidah during an internal check for menstrual blood with a Bedikah-cloth. The question in the Mishnah is whether we are to assume that the blood that was found is fresh (Dayan Sha'atan: it is enough to consider her Teme'ah from then on) or whether it had been there for some time, in which case the woman will be judged to be Teme'ah retroactively from the time the blood reached the opening of her body.
(b)The Gemara (Nidah 3b) concludes that even according to those who judge the woman to be Teme'ah retroactively, this is only a Chumrah d'Rabanan with regard to Terumah and Kodshim. With regard to making her husband and Chulin Teme'im, and with regard to her status mid'Oraisa, she is Tehorah, since she has a Chezkas Taharah.
8)[line 19]מפקידה לפקידהMI'PEKIDAH L'PEKIDAH- from the last time which she checked until the current Bedikah
9)[line 21]מעת לעת ממעט ע''י מפקידה לפקידהME'ES L'ES MEMA'ETES AL YAD MI'PEKIDAH L'PEKIDAH- if the previous Bedikah was done more than 24 hours ago, we consider her to be Teme'ah only retroactively for the last 24 hours
Semichah refers to the Mitzvah for a person to press his hands with all his might on the head of his sacrifice before it is slaughtered, as described in Vayikra (1:4). Not all Korbanos require Semichah. Shamai and Hillel disagreed as to whether one is allowed to do Semichah on Yom Tov.
11)[line 24]היכא דליכא פלוגתא דרבוותא בהדייהוHEICHA D'LEIKAH PELUGTA D'RABVASA BA'HADAIHU- where the great Rabanim before Hillel and Shamai did not also argue in the same matter
12)[line 25]הבוצר לגתHA'BOTZER LA'GAS
(a)All foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. Making foods wet in a manner that enables them to become Tamei is called "Hechsher." From then on, even after they dry they can still become Tamei. Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey.
(b)The food can become Tamei only if the owner of the food was pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seeds and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon them, the seeds are Tamei" (Vayikra 11:38). The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, just like the word "Yiten" — "he places." However, it is read "Yutan" — "it was placed." From this we learn that water or other liquids that fall on the food must be desirable to the owner of the food, as though he himself applied them.
(c)Shamai and Hillel disagree as to whether the liquid that flows from the grapes at the time that they are picked is Machshir the grapes or not. Their argument applies to grapes that are being picked in order to press them into wine.
13)[line 26]קא שתיק ליה הלל לשמאיKA SHASIK LEI HILLEL L'SHAMAI- Hillel eventually was silent and agreed to Shamai
14)[line 34]מלכות הרשעהMALCHUS HA'RESHA'AH- the wicked kingdom, Rome
15)[line 37]חנויותCHANUYOS- a place on Har ha'Bayis or in Yerushalayim
16)[line 39]דיני קנסותDINEI KENASOS- cases of fines, e.g. Kefel (double payment) for theft and Arba'ah v'Chamishah (the payment of four and five times) when one steals and slaughters a sheep or cow, respectively
17)[line 40]דיני נפשותDINEI NEFASHOS- capital cases
18)[line 1]אגושאA'GUSHA- on the land
19)[line 2]אאויראA'AVIRA- on the airspace
20)[line 9]אושאUSHA- a city in the Galil
21)[line 10]ספק בית הפרסSAFEK BEIS HA'PRAS (BEIS HA'PRAS)
(a)Beis ha'Pras is a general term referring to a field or an area that the Rabanan decreed to be treated as though it were Tamei, in certain respects (for example, Terumah that entered a Beis ha'Pras must be burned). The Mishnayos in Ohalos (18:1-4) explain that there are three specific types of Beis ha'Pras:
1.A field in which a grave was plowed over, scattering the bones in all directions. Such a field may be planted with trees, but not with vegetables or grains. Its earth can make a person Tamei through Maga or Masa.
2.A field (that is a Reshus ha'Rabim; TOSFOS to Kesuvos 24b; RASH to Ohalos 18:3) in which a grave is known to exist but it became lost and cannot be located. In such a field, trees may not be planted but vegetables or grains may be planted. It can make a person Tamei through Ohel (and according to some Girsa'os, through Maga and Masa as well).
3.A field on the edge of a town where a corpse was brought [and mourned] before burial. Such a field may neither be planted nor sown with vegetables or grains (but its earth is not Tamei if removed from its place). There are a number of reasons why the Rabanan might have made such a field Tamei:
i.Part of a corpse may have become dislodged and fallen there (RASHI to Moed Katan 5b DH Mishum Ye'ush) [or that an entire corpse may have inadvertently been left behind there - MEIRI ibid.].
ii.Alternatively, since a corpse is commonly found there, the Rabanan instituted that the area not be sown or planted, so as not to attract people to the area who will become Teme'im and spread Tum'ah. (PERUSH HA'MISHNAYOS of the Rambam to Ohalos 18:4)
iii.The prohibition against planting or sowing such a field has nothing to do with Tum'ah whatsoever. Rather, it involves a question of ownership. Since the community has made it their practice to mourn for and eulogize the dead in this field and the original owner did not protest this practice, he loses all rights to the land. The former owner cannot later decide to plant the field and deny the community the right to use it as a place for public mourning. (RITVA, RASH to Ohalos 18:4 and many Rishonim — see VILNA GA'ON to Choshen Mishpat 377:2)
(b)The Bartenura offers three explanations as to why the word "Peras" was used to describe these fields: 1. Tum'ah spreads (Pores) out in all directions from the field; 2. Bones that are broken (Perusim) are strewn in the field. (These first two explanations only apply to the first of the three types of Beis ha'Pras mentioned above, 1); 3. People's feet (Parsos) stay away from the area because of its Tum'ah.
(c)In the first type of Beis ha'Pras (a field with a burial plot that has been plowed), the Rabanan decreed that the field is Metamei in every direction from the grave for the length of the furrow of a plow, which is 50 Amos. This results in an area 100 Amos by 100 Amos around the grave (RASH to Ohalos 17:1). The Rabanan instituted a way to remove the Tum'ah from the area that was plowed (in certain cases) by blowing the dirt of each section of the field to check for small pieces of bone.
22)[line 11]ספק בגדי עם הארץSAFEK BIGDEI AM HA'ARETZ
Bigdei Am ha'Aretz (the clothes of an unlearned person) are considered Teme'im. Chazal were concerned that any article of his clothing may be Tamei Medras because his wife sat on them when she was a Nidah. We burn the Terumah that touches the clothes of an Am ha'Aretz.
23)[line 12]ספק כלים הנמצאיןSAFEK KEILIM HA'NIMTZA'IM
When a utensil is found and we are not certain that it is Tahor, any Terumah that touches it is burned.
24)[line 12]ספק הרוקיןSAFEK HA'ROKIN
When saliva is found on Terumah and we are not sure if it came from a Zav or not, the Terumah is burned.
25)[line 13]ספק מי רגלי אדםSAFEK MEI RAGLEI ADAM
Rashi points out that this Safek is more stringent than the previous ones, since we burn Terumah also in the case of a Sfek Sfeika. We do not know if the urine came from a person or an animal. Even if it came from a person, perhaps he was Tahor. Nevertheless, the Terumah is burned.
26)[line 23]תחלת ברייתן מן החולTECHILAS BERIYASAN MIN HA'CHOL- their source material is sand
27)[line 24]ככלי חרסKLEI CHERES
(a)Klei Cheres are clay and earthenware utensils. They become Tamei only when Tum'ah enters them (even though it does not touch them). Therefore, when they are covered with a Tzamid Pasil (a tight seal) they cannot become Tamei even if they are in the Ohel of a Mes, as is stated in Bamidbar 19:15. If they do become Tamei, they make any object that enters them Tamei, even if the object did not touch their inner surface.
(b)If the clay and earthenware utensils become Tamei, they remain so until they are broken beyond use. Immersing them in a Mikvah does not change their status. See Chart #4.
28)[line 26]הזפתHA'ZEFES- tar
29)[line 26]המורHA'MOR- myrrh
30)[line 28]אברAVAR- lead
31)[line 29]המעמידHA'MA'AMID- the substance that supports it; i.e. is responsible for it remaining an unbroken utensil