[13a - 47 lines; 13b - 44 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 13a [line 44]:

The words "Lech Lech Amri Nezira" לך לך אמרי נזירא

should be "Lech Lech Amrin Nezira" לך לך אמרין נזירא

(Dikdukei Sofrim #5 and elsewhere in Shas)

[2] Tosfos 13a DH u'Pliga ד"ה ופליגא:

The words "Dei'os v'Shinuy Lo Yisbor" דיעות ושינוי לא יסבור

should be "Dei'os v'Shinuy Lo, v'Lo Yisbor" דיעות ושינוי לא ולא יסבור

(The Mar'eh Kohen made a different emendation, which is not clear.)


1)[line 5]לאצלוייL'ATZLUYEI- to tilt the candle

2)[line 21]דיעותDEI'OS- two people

3)[line 23]אכסנייםACHSANIYIM- guests at an inn

4)[line 37]"אל ההרים לא אכל ועיניו לא נשא אל גלולי בית ישראל...""EL HE'HARIM LO ACHAL, V'EINAV LO NASA EL GILULEI BEIS YISRAEL..."- "He did not eat of sacrifices offered to idols in the mountains, and did not lift his eyes to the other idols of the house of Yisrael, neither did he defile his neighbor's wife nor come near to a menstruous woman" (Yechezkel 18:6).

5)[line 40]קורבה של גלוי עריותKURVAH SHEL GILUY ARAYOS- When the Torah forbids Giluy Arayos (Vayikra 18:6-30, 20:10-24), Rebbi Pedas rules that this applies to marital relations only.

6)[line 44]'לך, לך,' (אמרי) [אמרין] נזירא, 'סחור סחור; לכרמא לא תקרב''LECH, LECH,' (AMREI) AMRIN NEZIRA, 'SECHOR SECHOR; L'CHARMA LO SIKRAV'- "Go, go," they say to the Nazir, "go all around; do not approach the vineyard."

7)[line 46]תפיליוTEFILAV- his Tefilin


8a)[line 4]ימי נדותךYEMEI NIDUSEICH (NIDAH)

(a)By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she can immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah if she has stopped seeing blood. (If she sees blood during the following eleven days, she becomes a Zavah.)

(b)In our Gemara, the woman was asked about her husband's conduct with her during the days that she was a Nidah by Torah Law.

b)[line 6]ימי לבוניךYEMEI LIBUNAYICH (ZAVAH)

(a)If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count Shiv'ah Nekiyim (seven "clean" days), during which she verifies that she has no show of blood. These are also known as the Yemei Libun (the days in which a woman wears white undergarments). On the morning of the seventh clean day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. She must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two doves or two turtle-doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

(b)The Halachah requires that a woman who sees even the smallest amount of blood must count Shiv'ah Nekiyim after the flow of blood has stopped. This is the assertion of Rebbi Zeira in Nidah Daf 66a, who reports that Jewish women took it upon themselves to keep the laws of a Zavah even if they did not see blood on three consecutive days. (See RASHI and TOSFOS Megilah 28b.) In the case of the Gemara here, the woman was asked about her husband's conduct with her during her days of Shiv'ah Nekiyim.

9)[line 9]שלא נשא פנים לתורהSHE'LO NASA PANIM LA'TORAH- (a) [Blessed is HaSh-m Who killed him], and was not swayed by the Torah learning [of your husband]; (b) [Blessed is HaSh-m Who killed him], because he (your husband) did not heed properly the dictates of the Torah (SEFAS EMES)

10)[line 12]מטה חדא הואיMITAH CHADA HAVAI- they slept in the same wide bed (without touching each other)

11)[line 13]סינרSINAR- (O.F. porceint) belt; i.e. a sort of petticoat or breech-cloth

12)[line 14]בעלייתB'ALIYAS- in the second story of [the house of Chananyah ben Chizkiyah ben Garon]

13)[line 15]לבקרוL'VAKRO- to visit him

14)[line 18]דבעינן למימר קמןD'BA'INAN L'MEIMAR KAMAN- that we are going to say further on in the Mishnah

15)[line 22]מגילת תעניתMEGILAS TA'ANIS

(a)Megilas Ta'anis was originally composed by a Tana named Chananyah ben Chizkiyah ben Garon (along with students of Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel, according to the BEHAG, Hilchos Sofrim), approximately 100 years before the destruction of the Second Temple (see Shabbos 13b). It includes a list of the dates which were set aside as holidays, during the Second Temple period, due to the miraculous salvations and victories that occurred on them. On some of the dates, fasting was forbidden. On others, even delivering a eulogy was prohibited. Some salvations which occurred after the destruction of the Second Temple are recorded in Megilas Ta'anis as well (Rosh Hashanah 19a). These were added by later scholars and edited by Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi, the editor of the Mishnah (see Tosfos there DH Ha). It is apparent from the wording of the Megilas Ta'anis that we have that certain comments which appear in the Megilah regarding the cause for the celebrations were also added by a later editor.

(b)Megilas Ta'anis was committed to writing in order that these dates not be forgotten. For this reason, it is referred to as a "Megilah," as opposed to the Mishnah and Beraisa which were still handed down by word of mouth at that time (Rashi, ibid.). It is written in Aramaic.

(c)According to some Tana'im and Amora'im, shortly after the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash the holidays of Megilas Ta'anis ceased to be celebrated — with the exception of the holidays of Chanukah and Purim (Rosh ha'Shanah 18b, 19b). The devastation that followed the destruction of the Second Temple served such a crushing blow to the Jewish People that it overshadowed all of the holidays of Megilas Ta'anis.

16)[line 23]סיעתוSI'ATO- his followers

17)[line 23]היו מחבבין את הצרותHAYU MECHABEVIN ES HA'TZAROS- they cherished [their miraculous salvation from] past troubles [in which HaSh-m's hand was evident]

18)[line 28]רימהRIMAH- the worm in a grave

19)[line 29]"אך בשרו עליו יכאב ונפשו עליו תאבל""ACH BESARO ALAV YICH'AV, V'NAFSHO ALAV TE'EVAL"- "But his flesh will feel pain upon him, and his soul will mourn for him" (Iyov 14:22).

20)[line 31]איזמלIZMEL- a knife

21)[line 31]ברםBERAM- truly!

22)[line 35]גרביGARVEI- kegs

23)[line 38]אוכל ראשון... אוכל שניOCHEL RISHON... OCHEL SHENI (TUM'AH: The Different Levels of Tum'ah)

(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei.

(b)All sources of Tum'ah are called 'Av ha'Tum'ah' (a father of Tum'ah), except for a corpse, which can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah." All levels of Tum'ah below Av ha'Tum'ah are referred to as Vlad ha'Tum'ah (a 'child' of Tum'ah).

(c)When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah.

1.Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a Rishon, even if touched by a Sheni.

2.Another case in which the object touched can retain the same level of Tum'ah as that which touched it is Cherev Harei Hu k'Chalal (see Insights to Pesachim 14b).

(d)A Sheni l'Tum'ah cannot make Chulin Tamei. Terumah, however, can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. (If someone guarded his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi.)

(e)Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah cannot make other Terumah Tamei. However, it may not be eaten. For this reason, it is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei." Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) that is touched by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i. A Revi'i of Kodesh is "Pasul" and may not be eaten.

(f)Utensils, foods, and Jewish people, can become Tamei, as follows. (Other animate or inanimate objects cannot become Tamei.)

1.Utensils made from the metals listed in the Torah (Bamidbar 31:22), or from wood, leather, fibers produced from hair or plants, bone, and earthenware (Cheres), can become Tamei. All but earthenware can be either an Av ha'Tum'ah or a Rishon l'Tum'ah; earthenware can only be a Rishon l'Tum'ah (RASHI Eruvin 104b DH Lo).

2.Foods can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or lower.

3.Jewish people can become Avos ha'Tum'ah (by touching a corpse), an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon. Chazal decreed that a person's hands can become Sheni l'Tum'ah; see Background to Gitin 15:26. Chazal also decreed that a person can become a Sheni l'Tum'ah or Shelishi l'Tum'ah by eating foods that are Tamei (see Shabbos 13b).

(g)A person or utensil that is Tamei can become Tahor again through immersion in a Mikvah and waiting until nightfall. After immersion in a Mikvah but before nightfall, the person or utensil is known as a Tevul Yom. A Tevul Yom is deemed the equivalent of a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and can make Terumah or Kodesh into a Shelishi. It is more lenient, however, than a normal Sheni l'Tum'ah and cannot make liquids into a Rishon (see above, c:1).

24)[line 40]מים שאוביןMAYIM SHE'UVIN- water drawn in a vessel

25)[line 42]טבול יוםTEVUL YOM

A Tevul Yom is a person who has immersed himself in a Mikvah, and must wait for the sun to set in order to complete his Taharah. His level of Tumah is minimal; he is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah. If he touches Terumah, it becomes Pasul and must be burned.