[2a - 14 lines; 2b - 25 lines]
1)[line 1]יציאות השבתYETZI'OS HA'SHABBOS
The last of the 39 categories of forbidden Melachos (creative acts) of Shabbos is ha'Motzi me'Reshus li'Reshus. A person is not allowed to transfer objects from one Reshus (domain) to another on Shabbos. It is a capital offense to transfer objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain) to a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) or vice versa (Mishnah Shabbos 73a). The Tana of our Mishnah uses the term Yetzi'os for both Hotza'os and Hachnasos. (See Introduction to Maseches Shabbos.)
(a)A person can make an oath by using a name of or a reference to HaSh-m and swearing to do or not to do something.
(b)If he unintentionally transgresses his oath, he is required to bring a Korban Shevu'ah. The Korban Shevu'ah is a Korban Oleh v'Yored. This Korban varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas. If he cannot afford this, he brings two Torim (turtle-doves) or two Bnei Yonah (common doves), one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chatas (Vayikra 5:6-13).
(c)If he willingly transgresses his oath, he gets Malkus (lashes). However, if he swears to do something and doesn't do it, he does not get Malkus (RAMBAM Hil. Shevuos 4:20).
(d)Using the example of eating a loaf of bread to illustrate the phrase Shtayim she'Hen Arba, the wording of the Shevuos is:
1.I shall eat this loaf of bread;
2.I shall not eat it;
3.I ate it;
4.I did not eat it (RASHI).
3)[line 1]ידיעות הטומאהYEDI'OS HA'TUM'AH
(a)It is forbidden for a person to enter the Mikdash or eat Kodshim if he touched an Av ha'Tum'ah.
(b)If he knew that he was Tamei before and after the transgression, but forgot at the time he transgressed, he must bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored. This Korban varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas. If he cannot afford this, he brings two Torim (turtle-doves) or two Bnei Yonah (common doves), one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chatas. (Vayikra 5:6-13)
(c)If he willingly transgresses, he is liable to Kares and Malkus (lashes) (Vayikra 12:4, 22:3-4, Bamidbar 5:3, 19:20)
(d)Cases that illustrate the phrase Shtayim she'Hen Arba are:
1.The person forgot that he was Tamei when he ate Kodshim;
2.The person forgot that he was Tamei when he went into the Azarah (courtyard) surrounding the Beis ha'Mikdash;
3.The person knew that he was Tamei, but forgot that what he was eating was Kodshim;
4.The person knew that he was Tamei, but forgot that he was in a place that had the sanctity of the Azarah (RASHI).
4)[line 1]מראות נגעיםMAR'OS NEGA'IM
(a)When a person develops a mark that looks like Tzara'as, a Kohen must ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen pronounces him Tamei, puts him in quarantine (Hesger), and returns after a week to see what changes, if any, occurred to the mark.
(b)A person who is confirmed to be Tamei due to the appearance of Simanei Tum'ah in the mark is called a Metzora Muchlat. The color of the hair inside the mark of Tzara'as is one of the determining factors in the decision of the Kohen.
(c)The phrase Shenayim she'Hen Arba'ah refers to the four marks that make a person a Metzora Muchlat:
1.Baheres, which is the color of snow;
2.Se'eis, which is the color of clean, white sheep's wool;
3.Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash;
4.Sapachas of Se'eis, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an eggshell (RASHI).
5)[line 6]אבות... תולדותAVOS... TOLDOS
There are thirty-nine Avos Melachos (categories of creative acts) that are forbidden mid'Oraisa on Shabbos. Each Av Melachah has Toldos (sub-categories) that are also forbidden mid'Oraisa. A list of the Avos Melachos is found in the Mishnah on Daf 73a.
6)[line 23]רשויות קתניRESHUYOS KA'TANI- (a) Read the Mishnah as follows: Reshuyos Shtayim she'Hen Arba. There are two Reshuyos involved in the prohibitions of Hotza'ah; Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid. They produce four prohibitions for the person inside the house (2 d'Oraisa and 2 d'Rabanan), and four prohibitions for the person who is outside of the house (RASHI); (b) There are various domains of Shabbos. With respect to them, we find two prohibitions mid'Oraisa which are four (two more mid'Rabanan) inside the house and two ... outside of the house (TOSFOS DH Reshuyos, citing RIVA)