GENERATIONS WITH NO SHARE IN THE WORLD TO COME
The people of Sedom have no share in the world to come. They were "Ra'im" in this world, and "Chata'im (which means lacking)" in the world to come, but they will be judged;
R. Nechemyah says, also they will not be judged:
"Lo Yakumu Resha'im ba'Mishpat" is Dor ha'Mabul;
"V'Chata'im ba'Adas Tzadikim" are the people of Sedom.
Chachamim: They will not stand in the congregation of Tzadikim, but they will stand (to be judged) in the congregation of Resha'im.
The Meraglim have no share in the world to come:
"Va'Yamusu" in this world, and "...ba'Magefah" (Maharsha - this is written much later in the verse, therefore it refers to a different death) in the world to come.
R. Akiva says, Dor (the generation that died in) ha'Midbar has no share in the world to come - "Ba'Midbar ha'Zeh Yitamu v'Sham Yamusu";
R. Eliezer says, they have a share - "Isfu Li Chasidai..."
R. Akiva says, the congregation of (i.e. those swallowed with) Korach will never rise - "va'Tchas Aleihem ha'Aretz" in this world, and "va'Yovdu mi'Toch ha'Kahal" in the world to come.
R. Eliezer says, (they will rise -) "Hash-m Memis u'Mechayeh Morid She'ol va'Ya'al."
(Gemara - Beraisa - R. Akiva): Dor ha'Mabul has no share in the world to come:
"Va'Yimach Es Kol ha'Yekum" - in this world. "Va'Yimachu Min ha'Aretz" in the world to come;
R. Yehudah ben Beseira says, they will not live, and they will not be judged. "Lo Yadun Ruchi va'Adam l'Olam" - there will be neither Din nor Ru'ach;
Alternatively - their Neshamos will not return to the holders (their bodies).
R. Menachem b'Rebbi Yosef says, even when Hash-m returns Neshamos to dead bodies, their Neshamos will burn their bodies - "Ruchachem Esh Tochalchem."
(Beraisa): Dor ha'Mabul became haughty because Hash-m bestowed good on them - "Bateihem Shalom mi'Pachad v'Lo Shevet Eloka Aleihem... b'Sof v'Chinor v'Yismechu l'Kol Ugav Yechalu Yemeihem va'Tov Yemeihem uv'Rega She'ol Yechatu";
This caused them to tell Hash-m "Sur Mimenu v'Da'as Derachecha Lo Chofatznu Mah Shakai Ki Na'avdenu" - we rely on Hash-m only for rain, and even this is not essential. We can get water from rivers and springs!
Hash-m: They anger Me with the good I bestowed on them. I will punish them with it - "Hineni Mevi Es ha'Mabul Mayim."
R. Yosi says, they became haughty because they went after their eyes (Maharsha - instead of closing them when they should have), which are like water - "va'Yikchu Lahem Nashim mi'Kol Asher Bocharu";
Therefore, Hash-m punished them by (uncovering) water (that comes out from a source narrow) like eyes - "Nivke'u Kol Maynos Tehom Rabah va'Arubos ha'Shamayim Niftachu."
(R. Yochanan): "Rabah Ra'as ha'Adam" - because the sin of Dor ha'Mabul was Rabah (great), they were punished accordingly - "Nivke'u Kol Maynos Tehom Rabah."
(R. Yochanan): Three springs were left open after the flood - Blo'ah of Gader, the hot spring of Tiverya, and the great spring of Biram.
(R. Yochanan): "Ki Hishchis Kol Basar Es Darcho" - they would mate Behemos and Chayos, and people would mate with everything.
(R. Aba bar Kahana): All the animals ceased to do so, except for Tushlami (water rail, a bird that to this day mates with other species).
(R. Yochanan): Theft is very severe. Dor ha'Mabul transgressed everything, yet their decree was sealed only due to theft - "Ki Mol'ah ha'Aretz Chamas Mipneihem v'Hineni Mashchisam Es ha'Aretz";
R. Eliezer "He'Chamas Kam l'Mate Resha Lo Mehem v'Lo me'Hamonam v'Lo me'Hemehem ..." - theft itself stood up in front of Hash-m and said that there are no redeeming qualities in the people or their Kinyanim.
(Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): The decree was sealed even on Noach - "Nichamti Ki Asisim v'Noach";
He was spared because he found grace in Hash-m's eyes - "(v'Noach) Motza Chen b'Einei Hash-m."
Version #1 (Rav Dimi): "Va'Yinachem Hash-m Ki Osah Es ha'Adam ba'Aretz" - Hash-m consoled Himself that He made graves for people in the ground (Rashi - that He brought the flood; Ramah - when Hash-m decreed death on Adam ha'Rishon, He said that man would return to the dirt. Had He brought a flood instead, Noach would not have come to the world!)
Question: How does the verse teach this?
Answer: It says here "va'Yinachem", as it says about Yosef (comforting his brothers that he will not harm them) "va'Yinachem Osam va'Ydaber Al Libam."
Version #2: Hash-m 'regretted' that He made graves for people in the ground;
It says here "va'Yinachem", as it says about Hash-m's intent to destroy Yisrael due to the Egel, "va'Yinachem Hash-m Al ha'Ra'ah Asher Diber La'asos l'Amo."
(R. Yochanan): "Noach Ish Tzadik Tamim Hayah b'Dorosav" - he was a Tzadik in his generations, but had he lived in generations with big Tzadikim, he would not have been considered a Tzadik.
(R. Chanina): A parable explains this. A barrel of wine among barrels of vinegar gives a good smell. Elsewhere, one does not appreciate the smell.
(Reish Lakish): All the more so, had he lived among big Tzadikim he would have (learned from them and) been a bigger Tzadik!
(R. Oshaya): A parable explains this. A flask of perfume in a foul-smelling area gives a good smell, and all the more so it would do so amidst perfumes!
Question: "Va'Yimach Es Kol ha'Yekum Asher Al Penei ha'Adamah" - since the people sinned, why were the animals punished?
Answer (R. Yehoshua ben Korchah): A parable explains this. A man made a wedding feast for his son, and prepared many foods. His son died, so he strewed them about. Without his son, he has no need for them;
Likewise, the animals were only for the sake of man. Now that man would be destroyed, there is no need for animals.
"Be'Charavah Mesu", but fish did not die.
(R. Yosi of Kisri): "Kal Hu Al Penei Mayim..." - Noach told his generation that if they do not repent, Hash-m will bring a flood, and your bodies will float on the water like pouches;
"Tekulal Chelkasam ba'Aretz" - people will use you to curse ('you should be punished like Dor ha'Mabul').
"Lo Yifneh Derech Keramim" - his generation scoffed 'if you are right, why doesn't Hash-m bring the flood right away?'
Noach: Hash-m wants to take one Tzadik (Mesushelach, in his proper time) first, so he will not be punished with you.
His generation: If so, we need not clear the vineyards (do Teshuvah now)!
(Rava): "Lapid Buz l'Ashtus Sha'anan..." - Noach rebuked them with words as hard as Lapidim (flames), and they were Mevazeh (disgracing) him and unafraid. When he told them that the ark is for the Mabul, they said that they can defend themselves:
His generation: If He will bring a Mabul of fire (your ark will not help you, but) we have Alisah (Rashi - that can withstand fire; Aruch - a creature that can extinguish fire);
If He will bring a Mabul of water, if it is from the ground, we will cover the ground with iron. If it is from above, we have Akev (or Akush, to absorb or stop it).
Noach: "Nachon l'Mo'adei Ragel" - He can bring water (alternatively - semen) from between your legs. You cannot stop this!
(Beraisa): "Nachon l'Mo'adei Ragel" - the water of the flood was as hot and thick as semen.
(Rav Huna): They sinned with hot (semen), therefore they were punished with hot water;
It says "va'Yashoku ha'Mayim", like "va'Chamas ha'Melech Shochachah" (this implies that before, it was hot).
Question: "Va'Yhi l'Shiv'as ha'Yamim" - what happened during these seven days?
Answer #1 (Rav): It was the mourning over the death of Mesushelach. This shows that eulogies of a Tzadik hold back punishments.
Answer #2: Hash-m changed the nature of the world established in the seven days of creation. The sun rose in the west and set in the east.
Answer #3: First Hash-m gave them a long time (120 years) to repent, then He added to this a short time (seven days).
Answer #4: During the seven days he gave them a taste of the world to come, so that they would know what they lost.
Question: Why does it say "mi'Kol ha'Behemah... Ish v'Ishto"? There is no marriage among animals!
Answer (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): Animals that had not mated with other species were taken.
Question: How did Noach know which animals had not sinned?
Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): He passed the animals in front of the ark. It would only take those that had not sinned.
Answer #2 (R. Avahu): The animals that had not sinned came by themselves.
THE FLOOD (cont.)
Question: What is "Tevas Atzei Gofer"?
Answer (Rav Ada): It is Mavligah. Some say, it is Gulamish (these are species of cedar).
(R. Yochanan): "Tzohar Ta'aseh la'Tevah" - Hash-m told Noach to put gems in the ark that will illuminate like (the sun at) noon.
"V'El Amah Techalenah mi'Lma'alah" - in order that it will not topple;
"Tachtiyim Shniyim u'Shlishim Ta'aseha" - the bottom floor was for waste, the middle for the animals, the top for the people. (Presumably, at the beginning the food was in the bottom floor, and over the course of the year it was replaced by waste).
(Reish Lakish): "Va'Yshalach Es ha'Orev" - the raven gave (what it considered to be) an irrefutable argument:
Hash-m hates me, and you hate me. Hash-m commanded to take seven (pairs) of each Tahor species, but only one pair of each Tamei species;
You hate me. You did not take a Tahor species for your mission, rather, me. If the heat or cold will kill me, the world will lack a species (the other raven will die without offspring)!
Perhaps you desire my mate!
Noach: Rasha! In the ark, I was forbidden to my wife, who is normally permitted to me. All the more so I am forbidden to your mate, who is always forbidden to me!
Question: What is the source that Bi'ah was forbidden in the ark?
Answer: They were commanded to enter "Atah u'Vanecha v'Ishtecha u'Nshei Vanecha" (the men by themselves, and the women by themselves). They were commanded to leave "Atah v'Ishtecha u'Vanecha u'Nshei Vanecha" (as couples).
(R. Yochanan): This teaches that Bi'ah was forbidden in the ark.
(Beraisa): Three had Bi'ah in the ark. The dog, the raven and Cham. All were punished:
Dogs are normally tied (on a leash; alternatively, they are stuck together after Bi'ah);
Male ravens spit semen into the females' mouths;
The skin of (Rashi - Kush, the son of) Cham was stricken (the color changed).
(R. Yirmeyah): "Va'Yshalach Es ha'Yonah me'Ito (the dove was near Noach when he sent it)" teaches that it is good for Tahor birds to be near Tzadikim.
(R. Elazar): "Alei Zayis Toraf b'Fiha" - the dove told Hash-m that it prefers bitter food (such as olives) directly from Him, to food sweet as honey given by man.
'Toraf' connotes food - "Hatrifeni Lechem Chuki."
(R. Yochanan): "L'Mishpechoseihem Yotz'u Min ha'Tevah" - the animals left as couples (to reproduce), but the people did not (Maharsha).
(Rav Chana bar Bizna): Avraham's slave Eliezer asked Shem "l'Mishpechoseihem Yotz'u" (each species by itself). How did you feed each species according to its needs (Rashi; Maharsha - why didn't you also leave as couples?)
Shem: We were in great pain (Maharsha - therefore, we simply left like we were in the ark). Some animals must be fed by day, and others by night.
Noach did not know what to feed the Zikisa (a certain Chayah). One day, Noach was cutting a pomegranate, and a worm fell out, and the Zikisa ate it. From then on, Noach would knead bran (in water). When it became wormy, he would feed it to the Zikisa.
The lion caught a fever and was nourished by it (it removed its appetite);
(Rav): A fever nourishes between six and 12 days (some say - months).
Noach saw the Avarrshinah (Chol, a species of bird that never dies) sleeping in its cell. He asked, don't you need food?
The Avarrshinah: I saw that you were busy. I did not want to bother you.
Noach: Hash-m should grant that you never die - "vecha'Chol Arbeh Yamim."
(R. Chana bar Livai): Shem asked Eliezer 'How did (Avraham and) you fight the four kings?'
Eliezer: Hash-m put Avraham on His right. Avraham threw dirt, and it turned into swords. He threw straw, and it turned into arrows - "Ne'um Hash-m l'Adoni Shev li'Mini Ad Shis Oyvecha Hadom l'Raglecha", "...Yiten ke'Afar Charbo k'Kash Nidaf Kashto."