THE ARGUMENT ABOUT A FALSE NAVI
(Rav Chisda): R. Shimon and Chachamim argue about (how we kill) a false Navi who totally uproots (claims that Hash-m permitted) idolatry, or uproots some Isurim of idolatry and leaves others - "Min ha'Derech", even part of His way;
All agree about every other Mitzvah that if he totally uproots it he is choked, but if he partially uproots it he is exempt.
Question (Rav Hamnuna - Beraisa): (The above verse continues) "Laleches" refers to an Aseh. "Bah" refers to a Lav;
The verse cannot refer to idolatry. There is no Aseh of idolatry!
Answer (Rav Chisda): There is an Aseh - "v'Nitaztem" (breaking altars for idolatry).
(Rav Hamnuna): They argue about a false Navi who totally uproots idolatry or any other Mitzvah, or partially uproots idolatry - "Min ha'Derech", even part of His way;
All agree that if he partially uproots any other Mitzvah he is exempt.
Question (against both of them - Beraisa): One who prophesizes to (totally) uproot a Mitzvah from the Torah is liable;
R. Shimon says, if he partially uproots it he is exempt;
Regarding idolatry, even if he says 'serve it today, and abolish it tomorrow' he is liable.
Answer #1 (for Rav Chisda - Abaye): The Beraisa means, one who prophesizes to uproot a Mitzvah from the Torah, all agree that he is choked;
R. Shimon says, if he partially uproots it he is exempt. Chachamim agree;
Regarding idolatry, even if he says 'serve it today, and abolish it tomorrow' he is liable. They argue about which Misah (R. Shimon says choking, and Chachamim says stoning);
Answer #2 (for Rav Hamnuna - Rava): It means, one who prophesizes to uproot idolatry or any other Mitzvah is liable. They argue about which Misah;
R. Shimon says, if he partially uproots any other Mitzvah, he is exempt. Chachamim agree;
Regarding idolatry, even if he says 'serve it today, and abolish it tomorrow' he is liable. They argue about which Misah.
(R. Avahu): If an (established) Navi tells you to transgress any Mitzvah (due to Hora'as Sha'ah, a temporary ruling due to an urgent need), obey him;
The only exception is idolatry. Even if he causes the sun to stand still, do not obey him.
(Beraisa - R. Yosi ha'Galili): The Torah warns, even if a false Navi will be able to make the sun stand still (through Kishuf), do not consent to idolatry.
(Beraisa - R. Akiva): Hash-m would never allow a sinner to make the sun stand still!
Rather, the Torah teaches that even if an established true Navi such as Chananyah ben Ozer later sins and prophesizes to serve idolatry, do not listen (even if he previously performed great wonders).
ZOMEMIM OF A BAS KOHEN
(Mishnah): Edim Zomemim who falsely convicted a Bas Kohen...
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer (Rav Acha brei d'Rav Ika - Beraisa - R. Yosi): In all other Chayavei Misos, Edim Zomemim receive the same Misah as the one they framed, and both partners in Bi'ah (if both were Mezid) receive the same Misah;
Regarding a Bas Kohen it says "Hi" - she is burned, but the adulterer is not.
Question: Do Zomemim witnesses receive his punishment or hers?
Answer: "Ka'asher Zomam La'asos l'Achiv", and not as he plotted to do to his 'sister' (i.e. the Bas Kohen). (Rashi - this is only when their testimony convicted both of them; Tosfos (51b) - it is even if they convicted only her.)
WHO HAS A SHARE IN THE WORLD TO COME?
(Mishnah): Every Yisrael has a share in the world to come - "v'Amcha Kulam Tzadikim l'Olam Yirshu Aretz";
The following have no share in the world to come:
One who says that the Torah does not teach that there is a world to come, or that Hash-m did not give the Torah, or an Apikorus;
R. Akiva says, even one who reads foreign books (this will be explained).
One who whispers "Kol ha'Machalah... Lo Asim Alecha Ki Ani Hash-m Rofe'echa" over a wound.
Aba Sha'ul says, even one who pronounces Hash-m's name like it is written.
Three kings and four commoners have no share in the world to come:
The kings are Yarav'am, Achav and Menasheh.
R. Yehudah says, Menasheh has a share in the world to come, for it says "va'Yispalel Elav... va'Yishma Techinaso va'Yashivehu Yerushalayim l'Malchuso"!
Chachamim: He returned him to his kingship, but He did not return him to life in the world to come.
The commoners are Bil'am, Do'eg, Achitofel and Gechazi.
(Gemara) Question: If one says that the Torah does not teach that there is a world to come, why does he have no share in the world to come?
Answer (Beraisa): Since he denies Techiyas ha'Mesim, he has no share in it. Hash-m always bestows Midah k'Neged Midah.
(R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): Hash-m always bestows Midah k'Neged Midah. "Ka'Es Machar Se'ah Soles... b'Sha'ar Shomron... Hinei Hash-m Oseh Arubus b'Shamayim" (People were starving in the siege, and Elisha said that tomorrow flour will be cheap. The king's servant voiced his disbelief.)
Because he did not believe the miracle would happen, he did not benefit from it - "Hincha Ro'eh b'Einecha umi'Sham Lo Sochel... va'Yirmesu Oso ha'Am ba'Sha'ar (he was trampled)."
Question: Perhaps this was because Elisha cursed him, but not because Hash-m bestows Midah k'Neged Midah!
(Rav Yehudah): The curse of a Chacham is fulfilled, even if it was given unjustly.
Answer: "Ba'Sha'ar" teaches that he was killed for mocking the prophecy about the Sha'ar (price).
SOURCES FOR TECHIYAS HA'MESIM IN THE TORAH
Question: What is the source in the Torah that there is a world to come?
Answer #1: "U'Nsatem... Terumas Hash-m l'Aharon ha'Kohen";
Question: Aharon ha'Kohen did not live forever. He never entered Eretz Yisrael. How can we give Terumah to him?
Answer #1: This teaches that in the future we will give Terumah to him, i.e. there will be Techiyas ha'Mesim.
Answer #2 (and Rejection of Answer (b) - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): The verse teaches that we should give Terumah to Kohanim like Aharon, i.e. Chaverim (those who fulfill the Mitzvos properly).
(R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): We do not give Terumah to an ignoramus - "Lases Menas ha'Kohanim veha'Leviyim... Lema'an Yechezku b'Soras Hash-m";
Only one who vigorously observes Torah has a share.
(Rav Acha bar Ada): Giving Terumah to an ignoramus Kohen is like giving it to a lion;
Just like when a lion takes an animal from the herd we do not know whether it intends to eat it now or not, likewise, we do not know whether an ignoramus Kohen will eat Terumah in Taharah or Tum'ah.
(R. Yochanan): He causes the Kohen to die - "u'Mesu Vo Ki Yechaleluhu."
(D'Vei R. Eliezer ben Yakov): He burdens him with sins - "v'Hisi'u Osam Avon Ashmah b'Achlam Es Kodsheihem."
Answer #2 (Beraisa - R. Simai): We learn Techiyas ha'Mesim from the Torah - "ha'Kimosi Es Brisi Lases Lahem Es Eretz Kena'an";
It does not say that Hash-m will give Eretz Yisrael 'Lachem' (to you), rather, "Lahem" (to the Avos), i.e. there will be Techiyas ha'Mesim.
Question (Minim): What is the source in the Torah that there is a world to come?
Answers: Raban Gamliel gave sources from Torah, Nevi'im and Kesuvim. They did not accept them.
From the Torah - Hash-m told Moshe "Hincha Shochev Im Avosecha v'Kam."
Minim: Perhaps 'v'Kam' does not refer to Moshe, rather, to the nation (like the verse continues) - "v'Kam ha'Am ha'Zeh..."!
Raban Gamliel: From Nevi'im - "Yichyu Mesecha..."
Minim: Perhaps that refers to the dead that Yechezkeil revived (but there will not be Techiyas ha'Mesim in the future).
Raban Gamliel: From Kesuvim - "...Dovev Sifsei Yeshenim"
Minim: Perhaps the lips move, but they do not return to life, as R. Yochanan taught!
(R. Yochanan): If someone died and a Halachah is said in his name in this world, his lips move in the grave - "Dovev Sifsei Yeshenim"
In the end, Raban Gamliel gave an answer that they accepted.
Version #1 - Raban Gamliel: We learn from "Asher Nishba Hash-m la'Avoseichem Lases Lahem." It does not say 'Lachem', rather, "Lahem." (He will revive the Avos and give Eretz Yisrael to them.)
Version #2A (our text) Question (Raban Gamliel): Why does it say "v'Atem ha'Devekim ba'Shem Elokeichem... Chayim Kulchem ha'Yom"? Obviously, they are alive!
Answer: This teaches that even when everyone else is dead, they will be alive.
Version #2B (Maharshal) Raban Gamliel: " ...Chayim Kulchem ha'Yom" - just like you are all alive today, you will all be alive in the world to come.
Question (Romi'im): What is the source that Hash-m will revive the dead, and that He knows the future?
Answer (R. Yehoshua ben Chananyah): Hash-m told Moshe "Hincha Shochev Im Avosecha v'Kam."
Minim: Perhaps 'v'Kam' does not refer to Moshe, rather, to the nation - "v'Kam ha'Am...(Yisrael will sin)"!
R. Yehoshua: In any case, you must admit that He knows the future.
(R. Yochanan): Hash-m will revive the dead and He knows the future - "Hincha Shochev..."
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer b'Rebbi Yosi): I refuted the Minim, who deny Techiyas ha'Mesim!
"Hikares Tikares" (one who transgressed Kares is cut off) in this world. We must say that "Avonah Bah" is in the period of Techiyas ha'Mesim!
Question (Rav Papa): Why didn't he say that "Hikares Tikares" itself alludes to this world and the next?
Answer (Abaye): They could answer that the Torah speaks as people do (they sometimes double the word, therefore, we need not expound the extra occurrence).
Tana'im argue as Rav Papa and Abaye do:
(Beraisa - R. Akiva): "Hikares" in this world, and "Tikares" in the world to come;
R. Yishmael: It also says "v'Nichresa." Is there a third world?!
Rather, "v'Nichresa" in this world, and "Hikares" in the world to come. (We do not expound) "Tikares" - the Torah speaks as people do.
Question: How do R. Akiva and R. Yishmael expound "Avonah Bah"?
Answer (Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps (Kares is permanent) even if he repented!
Rejection: "Avonah Bah" - Kares is only when he still has his sin (he did not repent from it).
Question (Kleopatra): I know that the dead will live - "v'Yatzitzu Me'Ir k'Esev ha'Aretz." Will they be revived clothed or unclothed?
Answer (R. Meir): A kernel of wheat is planted unclothed, and sprouts and comes up clothed. Tzadikim are buried clothed, and all the more so they will come up clothed!
Question (Kaiser of Raban Gamliel): You say that the dead will live. They are dirt! Dirt does not live!