SANHEDRIN 101 (5 Cheshvan) - Dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of Reb Naftali ben Reb Menachem Mendel (Tuli Bodner) Z"L, who was Niftar 5 Cheshvan 5766. Tuli was an Ish Chesed and Ish Ma'aseh radiating joy whose Ahavas Yisrael knew no bounds. Dedicated by his son, Mordechai Bodner of Givat Mordechai, Yerushalayim.

[101a - 53 lines; 101b - 56 lines]

1)[line 2]שדעתו רחבהSHE'DA'ATO RECHAVAH- one who is forbearing. These type of people don't worry too much about the future (RASHI; see RASHBAM to Baba Basra 145b).

2)[line 4]שינוי וסת תחילת חולי מעייםSHINUY VESES, TECHILAS CHOLI ME'AYIM- a change in one's regular pattern [of eating] is the beginning of bowel diseases

3)[line 7]בבית משתאותB'VES MISHTAOS- party house (i.e. wedding celebration). This refers to an individual who is reclining over his cup of wine and recites verses aloud to amuse the guests (RASHI). Others learn that one recites verses containing the names of distinguished guests for the purpose of praising those guests (BEN YEHOYADA). MAHARSHA learns that saying these verses at an inappropriate time refers to a banquet not for religious purposes.

4)[line 8]חוגרת סקCHOGERES SAK- dons sackcloth

5)[line 10]לציםLETZIM- scoffers

6)[line 15]הגדותHAGADOS- Aggados, i.e. Midrash, as well as passages in the Mishnah and Gemara that contain stories, parables and other non-legal matters

7)[line 16]הלכות עצרת בעצרתHILCHOS ATZERES BA'ATZERES- the study of the laws of Shavuos on Shavuos.

8)[line 21]וברוקק בהUV'ROKEK BAH- and he spit on it. This is the way of people who do incantations and spit before the incantation. There are also incantations where they spit afterwards and use a name of G-d as the incantation.

9)[line 24]סכין וממשמשיןSACHIN UM'MASHMESHIN- anoint and massage

10)[line 25]לחישת נחשים ועקרביםLECHISHAS NECHASHIM V'AKRABIM- make incantations to ward off snakes and scorpions

11)[line 25]ומעבירין כלי על גב העיןU'MA'AVIRIN KELI AL GAV HA'AYIN- and one may pass a vessel over the eye on Shabbos (if one's eye hurts). One may place a cold metal utensil on an aching eye to cool it or to encircle the eye with a ring or other utensil to ease the pain. Since one is allowed to do this with a metal object and not with crushed herbs or other medicines, the Rabbis did not make a decree on this on Shabbos (YAD RAMAH).

12)[line 27]בכלי הניטלBICHLI HA'NITAL- with a vessel that one is allowed to move on Shabbos

13)[line 28]ואין שואלין בדבר שדים בשבתV'EIN SHOALIN BIDVAR SHEDIM BA'SHABBOS- one is not allowed to inquire demons on Shabbos. It was a custom for those who lost property to inquire of demons as to the whereabouts of the missing articles (RASHI)

14)[line 32]דאיבלע ברזאD'IBLA V'ARZA- he was swallowed by a cedar tree

15)[line 33]פקע ארזא ופלטיPAKA ARZA U'FALTEI- the cedar tree broke or blew up and discharged him

16)[line 35]שרי שמן ושרי ביציםSHARI SHEMEN V'SHARI BEITZIM- it is permissible [to ask demons] via oil or eggs

17)[line 36]שמכזביןSHE'MECHAZEVIN- that [the demons] lie

18)[line 37]אושפיזאUSHPIZA- an inn

19)[line 37]מישחא במנאMISHCHA B'MANA- oil in a vessel

20)[line 37]שף, נפקן ליה צימחי באפיהSHAF, NAFKAN LEI TZIMCHI B'APEI- he anointed himself and boils erupted on his face

21)[line 38]זיקא דחמת קא חזינא הכאZIKA DA'CHAMAS KA CHAZINA HACHA- I see the spirit of that demon whose name is Chamas here on your face! YAD RAMAH learns that Chamas was a sorcerer; the woman claimed that she saw an evil spirit conjured up by the sorcerer Chamas.

22)[line 39]ואיתסיV'ITASI- and he was healed

23)[line 42]חמה עזהCHEIMAH AZAH- great anger, i.e. Rabbi Eliezer was speaking of himself, indicating to his students that G-d was angry at him and he therefore caused himself to suffer a severe illness (RASHI). MAHARSHA objects because Rabbi Eliezer stated that there was anger in the world. This means that G-d's anger was directed at these students.

24)[line 45]ואין שמנו מבאישV'EIN SHAMNO MAV'ISH- and his oil does not become rancid

25)[line 45]ואין דובשנו מדבישV'EIN DUVSHANO MADBISH- and his honey does not spoil

26)[line 49]מגלגל חמהMIGALGAL CHAMAH- the wheel of the sun

27)[line 52]סמכוניSAMCHUNI- support me i.e. help me sit up

28)[line 53]"בן שתים עשרה שנה מנשה במלכו וחמשים וחמש שנה מלך בירושלים ושם אמו חפצי בה""BEN SH'TEIM-ESREI SHANAH MENASHEH BE'MOLCHO, V'CHAMISHIM-V'CHAMESH SHANAH MALACH BI'YRUSHALAYIM; VE'SHEIM IMO CHEFTZI-VAH"- "Menasheh was twelve when he became king, and he reigned for fifty-five years in Yerushalayim; the name of his mother was Cheftzi-Bah" (Melachim II 21:1). See next entry.

29)[line 53]"ויעש הרע בעיני ה', כתועבת הגוים אשר הוריש ה' מפני בני ישראל""VAYA'AS HA'RA BE'EINEI HASH-M, KE'SO'AVOS HA'GOYIM ASHER HORISH HASH-M MIPNEI B'NEI YISRAEL" - "And he did what was evil in the eyes of HaSh-m, akin to abominations of the nations that HaSh-m dispossessed before the B'nei Yisrael" (Melachim II 21:2) (THE WICKED KING MENASHEH)

(a)The Navi presents us with the following list of the evil deeds that Menasheh perpetrated. He rebuilt the Bamos that his father Chizkiyahu had destroyed, built Mizbechos to Ba'al, he planted an Asheirah, and prostrated himself to all the hosts of heaven. Moreover, he constructed altars in honor of all the hosts of heaven and placed them in the courtyards of the Beis ha'Mikdash. In addition, he passed his son through the fires of Molech, and practiced many kinds of witchcraft and sorcery. He did this deliberately to anger HaSh-m. He also manufactured an image for the Asheirah that he planted, and placed it in the Beis-ha'Mikdash.

(b)Worse than that, he led Yisrael astray to the point that they became worse than the nations that they had replaced when first entering Eretz Yisrael.

(c)He was also guilty of spilling innocent blood, even going so far as to kill his own grandfather Yeshayah ha'Navi. In this too, the people followed his example, and Yerushalayim became filled with murder "from one end to the other."

(d)As a result of Yehudah's numerous sins, HaSh-m sent word through the Nevi'im who prophesied at that time (Yo'el, Nachum and Chavakuk) that He decided to destroy Yerushalayim just as He had destroyed Yisrael, and to deliver His people into the hands of their enemies who would destroy them.

101b----------------------------------------101b

30)[line 6]"וידבר ה' אל מנשה ואל עמו, ולא הקשיבו. ויבא ה' עליהם את שרי הצבא אשר למלך אשור וילכדו את מנשה בחחים; ויאסרהו בנחשתים, ויוליכהו בבלה""VA'YEDABER HASH-M EL MENASHEH V'EL AMO, V'LO HIKSHIVU. VA'YAVEI HASH-M ALEIHEM ES SAREI HA'TZAVA ASHER LA'MELECH ASHUR, VA'YILKEDU ES MENASHEH BA'CHOCHIM, VA'YA'ASRUHU BA'NECHUSHTAYIM VA'YOLICHUHU BAVELAH" - "And HaSh-m spoke to Menasheh and to his people, but they did not listen. So HaSh-m brought against them the officers of the king of Ashur's army; they captured Menasheh with hunting-hooks and they led him bound in chains to Bavel" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 22:10-11) (THE CAPTURE OF KING MENASHEH)

When Menasheh and the people ignored HaSh-m's pleas to mend their ways, HaSh-m sent the Assyrian army against them. They captured him with hunting-hooks and brought him in chains to Bavel. There, the Midrash explains, they tortured him mercilessly. They placed him inside a large metal caldron with holes, and lit a fire around the caldron. Menasheh began to pray to every god that he knew; when he received no reply, in desperation, he remembered HaSh-m, to whom he turned and prayed. HaSh-m answered his prayers and returned him to Yerushalayim and to his throne. (See Background to Sanhedrin 90:26:c-d).

31)[line 15]בעלילהBA'ALILAH- with craftiness. Rather than utilizing sincere prayer to attain their objectives, they each employed an irrefutable argument (RASHI). MAHARSHA learns that when Rashi explains it means craftiness, he refers to the strength of their arguments. Each argument could have been refuted, nonetheless, all three were convinced of their rightness. Had G-d not acceded to each, they would have questioned His conduct of human affairs.

32)[line 23]ובגבוליןUVA'GEVULIN- outside of the Beis Hamikdash

33)[line 23]ובלשון עגאU'VI'LESHON AGAH- a foreign language. Alternatively it literally means a circle, a place where people congregate and speak of profane matters (RASHI). The ARUCH learns that AGAH means pronouncing G-d's Name in a joking manner.

34)[line 25]שריבע עםSHE'RIBA AM- that he lowered the nation.

35)[line 27]שניבטSHE'NIBAT- he beheld i.e. he beheld an omen but misunderstood its intent.

36)[line 29]שנתמכמך בבניןSHE'NISMACHMECH BA'BINYAN- that he was crushed in the building. (As for how such an evil person (as Michah) merited to live for so many centuries (from the time of the Exodus until the time of King David and Solomon), see YAD RAMAH, RASHI.)

37)[line 32]ואיצטגניני פרעהITZTAGNINEI PAR'OH- Par'oh's astrologers

38)[line 33]מאמתוAMASO- his male organ

39)[line 41]מי מריבהMEI MERIVAH- the waters of strife, i.e. the astrologers saw the omen that Moshe would be undone by water, but they misinterpreted it.

40)[line 42]"אחר הדבר הזה לא שב ירבעם מדרכו הרעה; וישב ויעש מקצות העם כהני במות, החפץ ימלא את ידו, ויהי כהני במות. ויהי בדבר הזה לחטאת בית ירבעם, ולהכחיד ולהשמיד מעל פני האדמה""ACHAR HA'DEVARIM HA'EILEH, LO SHAV YARAV'AM MI'DARKO HA'RA'AH; VA'YASHAV VA'YA'AS MI'KETZOS HA'AM KOHANEI BAMOS, HE'CHAFETZ YEMALEI ES YADO, VI'YEHI KOHANEI BAMOS. VA'YEHI BA'DAVAR HA'ZEH LE'CHATAS BEIS YARAV'AM UL'HACH'CHID UL'HASHMID ME'AL PENEI HA'ADAMAH" - "After this Yerav'am still did not repent, and he made some of the people priests for the altars, whoever wanted was allowed to learn the practice and become a priest of the altars. And this remained a taint of sin for the house of Yerav'am, to destroy and wipe them off of the face of the earth" (Melachim I 13:33-34) (THE DECISION TO DESTROY YERAVAM)

(a)Despite the incident described earlier in the chapter (where Yerav'am's arm became paralyzed and the Mizbe'ach split [see 'Ido ha'Navi and Yerav'am's Mizbe'ach', Yevamos 50a]), Yerav'am failed to learn a lesson from the miracle that he witnessed there, and continued with his evil ways.

(b)Chazal however, attribute HaSh-m's decision to destroy him to the episode where HaSh-m seized him by his clothes and promised him that if he would do Teshuvah, then He, Yerav'am and David would walk together in Gan Eden. Yerav'am declined the offer after HaSh-m told him that David would be the leader (and not he, Yerav'am), and it was then that HaSh-m made His decision.

41)[line 44]"וזה הדבר אשר הרים יד במלך; שלמה בנה את המלוא, סגר את פרץ עיר דוד אביב""VE'ZEH HA'DAVAR ASHER HERIM YAD BA'MELECH; SHLOMOH BANAH ES HA'MILO, SAGAR ES PERETZ IR DAVID AVIV" - "And this is the matter in which he rebelled against the king; when Shlomo built up the Milo, he closed the breach (deliberately) left by his father David" (Melachim I 11:27) (YERAV'AM REBUKES SHLOMO)

(a)When Shlomo noticed Yerav'am ben Nevat's diligence, he appointed him as chief tax-collector over the entire area of Beis Yosef (since he was from the tribe of Efrayim).

(b)David ha'Melech deliberately left breaches in the walls of Yerushalayim, allowing the people easy access to the city when visiting the Beis-ha'Mikdash on Yom-Tov. According to others, the easy access was for David to judge the people quickly and expediently.

(c)When Yerav'am ben Nevat saw that Shlomo built the Milo, a large area in front of the wall (to comfortably settle the servants and valets of his wife), and blocked those breaches in the process, he rebuked him publicly for tending to his wife's needs at the expense of the people. Chazal explain that the public rebuke consisted of removing his Tefilin in front of the king.

(d)For having the guts to rebuke the king for his misdeeds, he was rewarded with the crown. Immediately following this incident, the Navi describes how Achyah ha'Shiloni crowned him king over the Ten Tribes. He was punished however, for rebuking him publicly (as the Torah writes, "ve'Lo Sisa Alav Chet"(Vayikra 19:17)).

42)[line 46]אנגריא לבת פרעהANGARYA L'BAS PAR'OH- [you closed up (the breaches) to levy] a toll for Par'oh's daughter. RASHI explains: a) Anyone who wished to enter the city had to do so through one of the officially controlled gates. Each person who entered could be traced to ensure that he was paying the queen's tax; b) Solomon closed up all the gates of the city with the exception of one. Over this gate, he built a tower attached for Par'oh's daughter, so that all passerby would be available to honor or serve her. c) Solomon used to lock the doors of the Temple court and keep the keys. The Jews would have to wait until King Solomon awoke to begin the Temple service, or else pay Par'oh's daughter (Solomon's wife) to hand them over.

43)[line 47]שחלץ תפיליןSHE'CHALATZ TEFILIN- that he removed his Tefilin

44)[line 47]גסות הרוחGASUS HA'RU'ACH- haughtiness

45)[line 48]"ויאמר ירבעם בלבו, עתה תשוב הממלכה לבית דוד. אם יעלה העם הזה לעשות זבחים בבית ה' בירושלים, ושב לב העם הזה אל אדניהם אל רחבעם מלך יהודה; והרגני ושבו אל רחבעם מלך יהודה""VA'YOMER YARAV'AM B'LIBO, 'ATAH TASHUV HA'MAMLACHAH L'VEIS DAVID! IM YA'ALEH HA'AM HA'ZEH LA'ASOS ZEVACHIM BE'VEIS-HASH-M BI'YERUSHAYIM, V'SHAV LEV HA'AM HA'ZEH EL ADONEIHEM EL RECHAV'AM MELECH YEHUDAH; VA'HARAGUNI, V'SHAVU EL RECHAV'AM MELECH YEHUDAH' " - "And Yerav'am thought to himself, 'Now the kingship will revert to the House of David! If this people will (be allowed to) go up to bring sacrifices in the House of HaSh-m in Yerushalayim, then the hearts of this people will revert to their master, Rechav'am, King of Yehudah; then they will kill me and return to Rechav'am, King of Yehudah!' " (Melachim I 12:26-27) (YERAV'AM LEADS THE PEOPLE ASTRAY)

See entry #48.

46)[line 50]גמיריGEMIREI- he learned

47)[line 51]מורד במלכותMORED B'MALCHUS- (lit. rebellion against the king) treason

48)[line 51]"וַיִּוָּעַץ המלך, ויעש שני עגלי זהב; ויאמר אלהם, רב לכם מעלות ירושלים, הנה אלהיך ישראל אשר העלוך מארץ מצרים. וישם את האחד בבית אל ואת האחד נתן בדן""VA'YIVA'ATZ HA'MELECH, VA'YA'AS SHNEI EGLEI ZAHAV; VA'YOMER ALEIHEM, 'RAV LACHEM ME'ALOS YERUSHALAYIM, HINEI ELOHECHA YISRAEL ASHER HE'ELUCHA ME'ERTZ MITZRAYIM!' VAYASEM ES HA'ECHAD BE'VEIS-EIL VE'ES HA'ECHAD NASAN B'DAN" - "And the king took counsel, and he constructed two golden calves; and he said to them [the people] "It is too far for you to go up to Yerushalayim; these are your gods, Yisrael, who brought you up from the land of Egypt. And he set up one of them in Beis-Eil and the one he placed in Dan" (Melachim I 12:28-29) (YERAVAM MAKES TWO GOLDEN CALVES)

(a)The Navi says, "And Yerav'am thought to himself "Now the kingship will revert to the House of David! If this people will (be allowed to) go up to bring sacrifices in the House of HaSh-m in Yerushalayim, then the hearts of this people will revert to Rechav'am, King of Yehudah; Then they will kill me and return to Rechav'am, King of Yehudah!" (Melachim I 12:26-27).

(b)It occurred to Yerav'am that when he visited the Beis-ha'Mikdash for Hakheil (every seven years), he would be obligated to stand in the Azarah like everybody else, whilst Rechav'am, King of Yehudah, would be permitted to sit down (for so Chazal have taught, "Only the kings of Yehudah are permitted to sit in the Azarah"). When the people would see that, they would automatically demote him and reinstate Rechav'am as king of the entire nation. On the other hand, if he were to sit down as well, the men of Yehudah would accuse him of rebellion and kill him.

(c)It was the fear of that happening that drove him. He consulted his advisors and set up two golden calves, one in the north of his kingdom and one in the south.

(d)To justify his actions, he told the people that he put up the images to save them the long trek to Yerushalayim, and, following in the footsteps of the Erev Rav in the desert, he announced that these two images were the gods who brought them out of Egypt.

49)[line 54]היןHEN- yes

50)[line 55]למפלחL'MIFLACH- to worship

51)[line 56]למינסינהו הוא דקא בעיL'MINASINHU HU D'KA BA'EI- to test us he asks this

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