[61a - 44 lines; 61b - 38 lines]

1)[line 1]ASURAH- it is prohibited [to derive benefit from the animal, similar to the way in which one's intention to eat a Korban outside of its proper time or place at the time that he slaughters it renders it invalid (Pigul; see Background to 42:72:d)]

2)[line 1] ' HANICHA L'REBBI YOCHANAN- [the fact that we do not derive "Mechashvin me'Avodah la'Avodah" from Zibu'ach] is understood according to Rebbi Yochanan [since presumably, just as the animal is prohibited, so is the slaughterer liable for the death penalty]

3)[line 5] GAVRA LO BAR KETALA HU- [we] cannot [say that] the man is deserving of the death penalty [from the derivation from Pigul]

4)[line 8]SHAREI- permits

5a)[line 9] MIDI D'HAVAH A'MISHTACHAVEH L'HAR- similar to a case in which one who bows down to a mountain

b)[line 9] () [] D'HAR MUTAR (V'OVDAH) V'OVDO B'SAYAF- in which case the mountain is permitted [since it is part of the ground (see 47b)] while he who worshipped it is put to death by the sword (in the case of a Ben Noach)

6)[line 13]"[ , ; ,] ' [ , ""... EICHAH YA'AVDU [HA'GO'YIM HA'ELEH ES ELOHEIHEM, V'E'ESEH KEN GAM ANI?]"- "[Guard yourself carefully, lest you seek after them after you have destroyed them from before you; and lest you investigate their gods, saying,] 'How did these nations serve their gods, [and I will do likewise?]'"(Devarim 12:30).

7)[line 13] ?L'ME'UTEI MAI- what is it coming to exclude? If Hishtachava'ah was simply a stand-alone prohibition, this verse would exclude any manner of worship that is not standard for this idol (as long as it is not Avodas Penim), and include any manner of worship that is standard for the idol, whether or not it is an honorable one. Both of these points may be derived from Hishtachava'ah, however, if its purpose is to modify the rule of Avodah Zarah (see TOSFOS DH Eichah).

8)[line 14] HA'PO'ER ATZMO LA'ZOVCHIM- one who defecates (i.e., worships in a dishonorable manner) in worship of idols that are normally worshipped through animal sacrifice (i.e., an honorable manner)

9)[line 20]" [ ...]""V'LO YIZBECHU OD ES ZIVCHEIHEM LA'SE'IRIM..."- "And they will no longer slaughter their sacrifices to the spirits [that they stray after...]" (Vayikra 17:7).

10)[line 24] ZOVE'ACH L'HACH'IS- one who sacrifices [to an idol not because he believes in it, but rather because he wishes] to anger [HaSh-m]

11)[line 25] IRCHESU LEI TOREI- his oxen went missing [and he went to look for them]

12)[line 25] RAMA LEI MASNISIN A'HADADEI- [Rabah] posed a contradiction between two Mishnayos [in our Perek]

13)[line 27], "", " ", " "HA'OMER, "E'EVOD," "ELECH V'E'EVOD," "NELECH V'NA'AVOD"- one who says [in response to an attempt to sway him to idol worship], "I will worship," "I will go and worship" (even if he has not actually done so yet), or "We will go and worship" (even though the group may yet change their mind) [is liable to receive Sekilah]

14)[line 28], " "B'OMER, "EINI MEKABLO ALAI ELA BA'AVODAH"- [the case of our Mishnah is one] in which he said, "I do not accept [this idol] upon myself [as a god] until I worship it"

15)[line 30] ?TENAI SHAKLAS ME'ALMA?- are you removing a Tana'ic disagreement from the world?; i.e., the answer to the contradiction is that it is dependent upon the following disagreement!

16)[line 31] BO'U V'AVDUNI- come and worship me

17)[line 32]PALCHU- they [actually] worshipped [him]

18)[line 37] LAV MILSA HI D'AMARI- that which I suggested is incorrect

19)[line 39] EINO CHAYAV- [one who responds to an attempt to sway him to idol worship] is not liable

20)[line 41] ""MESIS L'ATZMO V'AMREI LEI "IN"- [a case in which] one attempted to sway others to worship him and their response to him was, "Yes"

21)[line 43] KUSHTA HU- it is the truth; i.e., they meant it seriously

22)[last line] , " ?"MEIMAR AMREI, "MAI SHNA IHU MINAN DIDAN?- they will surely say [to themselves], "Why is he any different than we are?"


23)[line 1] ACHUCHEI ALEI- they were humoring him; i.e., they did not mean it seriously

24)[line 2]U'MASNISIN- and [as far as answering the apparent contradiction between] our Mishnayos

25)[line 3] , YACHID LO MIMLICH, V'TA'I BASREI- an individual will not change his mind, but will [rather] sinfully follow him

26)[line 5]" ...""LO SOVEH LO V'LO SISHMA ELAV..."- "Do not be drawn toward nor listen to him..." (Devarim 13:9). This verse is written in the singular form.

27)[line 6] , HA AVAH V'SHAMA, CHAYAV- [this implies that] if he did listen, he is liable [at that moment]

28)[line 8]" ...""KI YESISCHA ACHICHA VEN IMECHA..."- "Should your brother from your mother's side attempt to sway you to idol worship..." (Devarim 13:7). The verses go on to state that no matter who it is that attempts to convince others to worship idols, they should not be listened to but rather stoned.

29a)[line 9] HOTZI HA'CHASUV YACHID MI'CHLAL RABIM- the Torah excluded an individual [who is swayed] from the category of many who are swayed (as these verses refer only to an individual)

b)[line 10] V'RABIM MI'CHLAL YACHID - and it excluded the many [i.e. a city that has strayed to idol worship] from the category of the individual (IR HA'NIDACHAS)

(a)If an entire city has strayed (Nidach) to the extent that most of its inhabitants practice idolatry, it must be eradicated. All those who worshipped idols are put to death by the sword, while the buildings of the city are razed and its possessions burned (Devarim 13:13-19). Those righteous individuals who did not sin are allowed to remain alive, but they must leave the city bereft of all their possessions.

30a)[line 11] L'HACHMIR AL GUFO- to be stringent on his body [as he receives the death penalty of Sekilah, which is more stringent than Sayif (see 49b-50b)]

b)[line 11] UL'HAKEL AL MAMONO- and to be lenient on his possessions [which are inherited by his heirs]

31)[line 15] NISES MI'PI ATZMO- he is swayed by himself; i.e., he made the decision to worship an idol on his own

32)[line 16] GARIR BASRAIHU- he will be drawn after them

33)[line 18]" , ...""LO SOVEH LO V'LO SISHMA ELAV..."- "Do not be drawn toward nor listen to him..." (Devarim 13:9). This verse describes one who is convinced to worship idols by another.

34)[line 20] ; KACH OCHELES KACH SHOSEH; KACH METIVAH KACH MERI'AH- this is what it eats and this is what it drinks; this is how it rewards [its worshippers] and this is how it punishes [those who spurn it]

35)[line 22]" , ...""ME'ELOHEI HA'AMIM ASHER SEVIVOSEICHEM, HA'KEROVIM ELECHA O HA'RECHOKIM MIMEKA..."- "From the gods of the nations that surround you, whether those close to you or far from you..." (Devarim 13:8). This verse describes the range of false gods that one may not worship even if another attempts to convince him to do so.

36)[line 23] TIVUSAN SHEL KEROVIM- the nature of those [idols] that are close to you (namely, that they are lifeless and powerless)

37)[line 24] ...MAI LAV D'AMAR LEI...- From that which the Torah instructs a Nises to ascertain the true nature of faraway idols from that of nearby ones, it is clear that the Mesis in question had made false claims about his idol.

38)[line 25] SEIFA B'YISRAEL MUMAR- the second Mishnah is discussing a Jewish apostate [who is liable for words alone since he has already demonstrated his willingness to actually worship idols]

39)[line 25]" " "LO ZU AF ZU" KA'TANI- [the rulings of the Mishnayos] are taught in a format of "not only this, but even that"

40)[line 26] ME'AHAVAH UMI'YIR'AH- for love [of] or out of fear [of another person, although he does not believe in the idol] (see Insights for other explanations of the Rishonim)

41)[line 30] KED'METARETZ REBBI YIRMIYAH- as Rebbi Yirmeyah explained (namely, that "Oved" refers to worshipping the idol in the normally accepted manner, whereas one is Chayav for the other actions even if it is not the normal manner of worshipping this idol; 60b)

42)[line 31]" ...""LO SISHTACHAVEH LA'HEM V'LO SA'AVDEM..."- "Do not bow down to them and do not worship them..." (Shemos 20:5 / Devarim 5:9). This verse, which discusses idol worship, appears in the Aseres ha'Dibros.

43)[line 32] AFILU NE'EVAD K'HAMAN- even if he is worshipped as Haman was. Haman made himself into an idol (Megilah 19a).

44)[line 32] HAMAN MI'YIR'AH HAVAH NE'EVAD- Haman was worshipped out of fear [of King Achashverosh, who commanded that his subjects bow down to Haman (Esther 3:2)]

45)[line 34] KOHEN MASHI'ACH BA'AVODAS KOCHAVIM- a Kohen Gadol anointed [with Shemen ha'Mishchah (see Background to Shekalim 16:6) who is obligated to offer a Korban] for [inadvertently worshipping] Avodah Zarah. Generally, if one transgresses a sin for which he would have been liable to receive Kares or the death penalty had he transgressed it intentionally, he must offer a Korban Chatas (see Background to 4:14). A Kohen Gadol who acts in such a manner based upon his own mistaken ruling must offer a special Korban termed a Par Kohen Mashi'ach (see Background to 42:60). Aside from the obvious differences in the process of offering these Korbanos, as described in the Pesukim, there is another difference: Whereas an individual must offer a Korban Chatas whether he thought that his action was permitted or whether he was aware of the prohibition and he thought that his action did not constitute a transgression, a Kohen Gadol offers a Par Kohen Mashi'ach (for most sins that would have been liable to Kares) only if he was unaware of the prohibition to begin with (Horayos 8a).

46)[line 35] B'SHIGEGAS MA'ASEH- [in this case of Avodas Kochavim, he is obligated even if] his error was that he thought that his action did not constitute a transgression (similar to an individual)

47)[line 35] B'HE'ELEM DAVAR- [he is not obligated unless] he was unaware of the prohibition to begin with (as usual)

48)[line 36] SHAVIN SHEB'SE'IRAH K'YACHID- they agree that he must offer a female goat [as his Chatas] like an individual (who worshipped Avodas Kochavim - Bamidbar 15:27-31) [instead of his usual bull (see Horayos 7-8 and RASHI here)]

49)[line 36] ASHAM TALUY - A Dependant Korban Asham

(a)If one is in doubt as to whether or not he committed a transgression for which he must offer a Korban Chatas (see Background to 4:14), he must offer a ram worth at least two Sela'im as a Korban Asham Taluy (dependent) (Vayikra 5:17-19). Should he later discover that he did indeed sin, he must then offer a proper Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy provides only temporary atonement as long as he is unsure of his requirement (see Background to Nazir 23:2b).

(b)One who offers a Korban Asham first leans on the animal with all his might (Semichah) in the northern area of the Azarah. He then recites Viduy, confessing his sin and asking HaSh-m for forgiveness. The animal is then immediately slaughtered. The blood of the Asham is applied to the lower half of the Mizbe'ach at the northeastern corner in such a way that it touches both the northern and the eastern sides, and then to the southwestern corner in such a way that it touches both the southern and the western sides (Shetayim she'Hen Arba). The remaining blood is then spilled onto the Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach. As with the Korban Chatas, the meat of the Korban is consumed by Kohanim in the Azarah; it must be consumed before the day following its offering (Vayikra 4:27-31).

(c)All opinions agree that since a Kohen Gadol does not offer a Korban Chatas for a Shigegas Ma'aseh, he never offers a Korban Asham Taluy (see RASHI).

50)[line 37] !HAREI LIBO LA'SHAMAYIM!- his intentions are toward Heaven [and he has not transgressed the prohibition against idol worship even inadvertently]!

51)[last line] CHAZA ANDARTA- he saw a statue in the form of the king [which some worship and others bow down to merely as a sign of respect