[37a - 46 lines; 37b - 55 lines]
1)[line 1]ושלש שורותSHALOSH SHUROS- three rows [of Talmidim, student judges]. These three rows are comprised of young, potential judges. If the need arises to add additional judges to the Beis Din of 23 judging a capital case (for example, 12 of the judges said the defendant was guilty, and 11 said that he was innocent, in which case the verdict cannot be passed, since a guilty verdict needs a majority of 2 judges), the judges are added from those who are sitting in these three rows. Each of the student rows also consists of 23 judges, such that three rows are necessary in order to provide up to 48 additional judges (to reach a Beis Din of 71).
2)[line 6]אחד מן הקהלECHAD MIN HA'KAHAL- one [of the Talmidim] from the assembly. The students of the assembly are less qualified and less experienced that those who sit in the three rows as candidate judges.
3)[line 9]"שָׁרְרֵךְ אַגַּן הַסַּהַר אַל יֶחְסַר הַמָּזֶג; בִּטְנֵךְ עֲרֵימַת חִטִּים סוּגָה בַּשּׁוֹשַׁנִּים""SHARERECH AGAN HA'SAHAR, AL YECHSAR HA'MAZEG; BITNECH AREMAS CHITIM, SUGAH BA'SHOSHANIM"- "Your navel is like a goblet shaped like the moon, that never lacks blended wine; your stomach is like a heap of wheat, fenced in with roses" (Shir ha'Shirim 7:3).
4)[line 12]בטיבורו של עולםTIBURO SHEL OLAM- the center (lit. navel, which is at the center of the body) of the world. The Sanhedrin convened in the Beis ha'Mikdash, which is the center of the world.
5)[line 13]שהיא דומה לסהרSHE'HI DOMAH L'SAHAR- for it is similar to the moon (in that the Sanhedrin sits in the shape of a semi-circle, like a crescent moon)
6)[line 20]אפילו כסוגה של שושניםAFILU K'SUGAH SHEL SHOSHANIM- [a protective measure] even [as thin] as a fence of roses [keeps the Jewish people away from sin]
7)[line 21]ההוא מינאHA'HU MINA- that certain heretic
8)[line 23]בנעורתNE'ORES- thoroughly beaten flax
9)[line 23]מהבהבתMEHAVHEVES- (O.F. flamer) catch fire, combust
10)[line 25]"כְּפֶלַח הָרִמּוֹן רַקָּתֵךְ מִבַּעַד לְצַמָּתֵךְ""K'FELACH HA'RIMON RAKASECH..."- "As a section of a pomegranate is your cheek [within your veil]" (Shir ha'Shirim 6:7) - Reish Lakish reads this verse to mean: "As many as a pomegranate's seeds are the merits of your unworthiest" (The word for "your cheek," "Rakasech," hints at the word "רֵיק" "Reik," or "empty.")
11)[line 25]ריקניןREIKANIN- the empty ones
12)[line 26]"[וַיִּגַּשׁ וַיִּשַּׁק לוֹ,] וַיָּרַח אֶת רֵיחַ בְּגָדָיו [וַיְבָרְכֵהוּ...]""... VA'YARACH ES REI'ACH BEGADAV [VAY'VARECHEIHU...]"- "... and he smelled the fragrance of his clothing, [and blessed him...]" (Bereishis 27:27) - The Torah relates that when Yakov came to receive the blessing from Yitzchak, Yitzchak smelled the fragrance of his son's clothing.
13)[line 27]בוגדיוBOGDAV- his sinners (lit. traitors), referring to the Jewish descendants of Yakov who would sin (even they have a good fragrance - see Insights)
14)[line 27]בריוניBIRYONEI- ruffians
15)[line 27]בשיבבותיה דרבי זיראSHIVEVUSEI D'REBBI ZEIRA- the neighborhood of Rebbi Zeira
16)[line 27]דהוה מקרב להו כי היכי דניהדרו להו בתיובתאD'HAVAH MEKAREV LEHU KI HEICHI D'NIHADRU LEHU BI'TEYUVTA- he (Rebbi Zeira) would bring them close [to him] in order that they return in repentance
17)[line 28]והוו קפדי רבנןHAVU KAPDEI RABANAN- the Rabanan were strict with Rebbi Zeira (they did not want him to bring those sinners close to him, as they felt that the sinners were doing Teshuvah only to impress Rebbi Zeira)
18)[line 28]כי נח נפשיה דרבי זיראKI NACH NAFSHEI D'REBBI ZEIRA- when Rebbi Zeira died
19)[line 28]עד האידנא הוה חריכא קטין שקיהAD HA'IDNA HAVAH CHARIKA KATIN SHAKEI- until now, the burned, short-legged one was alive (referring to Rebbi Zeira, who was short and who had burned his legs; see Bava Metzia 85a, which describes the incident in which Rebbi Zeira went into a fiery oven in order to test himself)
20)[line 29]דהוה בעי עלן רחמיD'HAVAH BA'I ALAN RACHAMEI- who would pray for mercy for us
21)[line 30]כי ניידי, כולהו ניידיKI NAIDEI, KULHU NAIDEI- when they moved (the one or two candidate judges who were selected from the front of the three rows to become members of Beis Din), all of them moved (all of the candidate judges in the three rows moved, by shifting seats, each person moving up one (or two) seats)
22)[line 31]השתא מותביתו לי בדנביHASHTA MOSVISU LI B'DANVEI- now they are seating me at the tail (one who was seated at the head of the second row, for example, would be seated at the end of the first row when they all moved up one seat)
23)[line 33]מאיימיןME'AIMIN- threaten, frighten, intimidate
24a)[line 34]מאומדME'OMED- based on a conjecture [of what occurred]
b)[line 34]ומשמועהMI'SHEMU'AH- based on hearsay
25)[line 34]עד מפי עדED MI'PI ED- a witness who testifies based on what he heard from an actual witness (and not what he himself saw)
26)[line 43]רשויותRASHUYOS- powers
27)[line 44]שאדם טובע כמה מטבעות בחותם אחדADAM TOVE'A KAMAH MATBE'OS B'CHOSAM ECHAD- a person mints many coins with a single mold
28)[line 2]"[וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה,] וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע; אִם לוֹא יַגִּיד וְנָשָׂא עֲוֹנוֹ""[V'NEFESH KI SECHETA V'SHAM'AH KOL ALAH,] V'HU ED O RA'AH O YADA; IM LO YAGID V'NASA AVONO"- "[And if a person sins, and hears (and accepts) the demand for an oath,] and he is a witness, whether he has seen or known of it; if he does not utter it (i.e. testify), then he shall bear his iniquity" (Vayikra 5:1).
29)[line 4]"[וּ]בַאֲבוֹד רְשָׁעִים רִנָּה""[U']VA'AVOD RESHA'IM RINAH"- "... and with the destruction of the wicked, there is joyous song" (Mishlei 11:10).
30)[line 6]לחורבהCHURVAH- a ruined building
31)[line 7]סייףSAYIF- a sword
32)[line 7]ודמו מטפטףDAMO METEFTEF- his blood was dripping
33)[line 8]והרוג מפרפרHARUG MEFARPER- the murdered was convulsing
34)[line 10]אראה בנחמהER'EH BA'NECHAMAH...- (a) "I will see the [day that Benei Yisrael will be in a state of] comfort (and will be redeemed from Galus)" (BEREISHIS RABAH 65:12, see MAHARSHA to Pesachim 54b). This phrase is a euphemism meaning, "I will not see the Day of Redemption (if the following is not true)" (RASHI to Makos 5b DH Er'eh, 1st explanation); (b) "[I take an oath that my sons shall die and] I will see [the period of mourning in which people will come to] comfort [me] (if the following is not true)" (RASHI to Makos 5b DH Er'eh, 2nd explanation).
35)[line 18]והכישוHIKISHO- it bit him
36)[line 18]והאי בר נחש הוא?!HAI BAR NACHASH HU?!- Was this one (the presumed murderer) deserving [of being killed by] a snake?! (Being bitten by a snake is similar to the death penalty of Sereifah. Murder is punishable by the death penalty of Hereg.)
37)[line 21]ארבע מיתותARBA MISOS (ARBA MISOS BEIS DIN)
Arba Misos Beis Din, the four death penalties administered by Beis Din, in their order of stringency are:
1.Sekilah (stoning, whereby the transgressor is thrust down from the height of two stories, and then (if he is still alive) a large rock is thrown down upon him). Some examples of sins for which Sekilah is administered: desecrating the Shabbos; idol worship; cursing (Chas v'Shalom) G-d; bestiality; sodomy; certain illicit relations (Sanhedrin 53a).
2.Sereifah (burning with molten lead, which is poured down the throat). Sereifah is administered for certain illicit relations (Sanhedrin 75a).
3.Hereg (killing with a sword) (Sefer ha'Chinuch #50). Hereg is administered for Avodah Zarah, when performed along with most of the inhabitants of an Ir ha'Nidachas, and for murder (Sanhedrin 76b).
4.Chenek (strangulation) (Sefer ha'Chinuch #47) - Chenek is administered for wounding one's parents; Zaken Mamrei; Navi Sheker; certain illicit relations (Sanhedrin 84b).
38)[line 22]דין ארבע מיתות לא בטלוDIN ARBA MISOS LO BATLU- the liability to receive the four death penalties of Beis Din has not been annulled
39)[line 24]דורסתוDORASTO- tramples him to death
40)[line 25]מכישוMAKISHO- bites him
41a)[line 26]נמסר למלכותNIMSAR LA'MALCHUS- he is handed over (by informers) to the ruling power
b)[line 26]ליסטין באין עליוLISTIN BA'IN ALAV- armed bandits come upon him
42)[line 28]בסרונכיSERUNCHI- (O.F. bon malant) quinsy, a severe development of heat, pain, redness and swelling in the throat
43)[line 33]האוחרHA'OCHER- (a) engaged in mating (RASHI's preferred explanation); (b) biting (RASHI)
44)[line 37]הוא אמר לי ש"אני חייב לו"HU AMAR LI SHE'ANI CHAYAV LO- [witnesses testify that] he said to me that "I owe him money"
45)[line 40]אמרינן להו בדיני נפשותAMRINAN LEHU B'DINEI NEFASHOS- we say it to them (i.e. the witnesses, that certain forms of testimony, such as "Ed mi'Pi Ed," are invalid, only) in cases of Dinei Nefashos
46a)[line 42]חבורותCHABUROS- wounds
b)[line 42]פציעותPETZI'OS- stabs
47)[line 45]"מִכְּנַף הָאָרֶץ זְמִירוֹת שָׁמַעְנוּ צְבִי לַצַּדִּיק...""MI'KENAF HA'ARETZ ZEMIROS SHAMANU TZVI LA'TZADIK..."- "From the edge of the earth we heard songs: 'Glory to the righteous one'..." (Yeshayah 24:16).
48)[line 46]"וַתִּפְתַּח הָאָרֶץ אֶת פִּיהָ [וַתִּבְלַע אֹתָם וְאֶת בָּתֵּיהֶם; וְאֵת כָּל הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר לְקֹרַח וְאֵת כָּל הָרְכוּשׁ]""VA'TIFTACH HA'ARETZ ES PIHAH..."- "And the ground opened up its mouth [and swallowed them and their houses; and all of the men who were with Korach, and all of the property]" (Bamidbar 16:32) - From here we see that the ground did open up another time, after opening up to swallow the blood of Hevel.
49)[line 48]"[הֵן גֵּרַשְׁתָּ אֹתִי הַיּוֹם מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּמִפָּנֶיךָ אֶסָּתֵר;] וְהָיִיתִי נָע וָנָד בָּאָרֶץ [וְהָיָה כָל מֹצְאִי יַהַרְגֵנִי]""... V'HAYISI NA VA'NAD [BA'ARETZ...]"- "... and I will be constantly wandering [the earth...]" (Bereishis 4:14).
50)[line 48]"[וַיֵּצֵא קַיִן מִלִּפְנֵי ה',] וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּאֶרֶץ נוֹד [קִדְמַת עֵדֶן]""... VA'YESHEV B'ERETZ NOD..."- "... and he settled in the land of Nod..." (Bereishis 4:16).
51)[line 49]"הַיּוֹשֵׁב בָּעִיר הַזֹּאת יָמוּת בַּחֶרֶב [וּ]בָרָעָב וּבַדָּבֶר; וְהַיּוֹצֵא וְנָפַל [עַל] הַכַּשְׂדִּים הַצָּרִים עֲלֵיכֶם [וְחָיָה], וְהָיְתָה לּוֹ נַפְשׁוֹ לְשָׁלָל""HA'YOSHEV BA'IR HA'ZOS YAMUS BA'CHEREV UVA'RA'AV UVA'DAVER; V'HA'YOTZEI V'NAFAL AL HA'KASDIM HA'TZARIM ALEICHEM V'CHAYAH, V'HAYESAH LO NAFSHO L'SHALAL"- "He who dwells in this city will die by the sword or by famine or by plague; but he who leaves and falls into the hands of the Kasdim who are besieging you will live, and his life will be his spoils" (Yirmeyahu 21:9).
52)[line 52]"[כֹּה אָמַר ה',] כִּתְבוּ אֶת הָאִישׁ הַזֶּה עֲרִירִי, גֶּבֶר לֹא יִצְלַח בְּיָמָיו; כִּי לֹא יִצְלַח מִזַּרְעוֹ אִישׁ יוֹשֵׁב עַל כִּסֵּא דָוִד וּמוֹשֵׁל עוֹד בִּיהוּדָה""... KISVU ES HA'ISH HA'ZEH ARIRI, GEVER LO YITZLACH B'YAMAV; KI LO YITZLACH MI'ZAR'O ISH YOSHEV AL KISEI DAVID U'MOSHEL OD BI'YEHUDAH"- "Inscribe this man as childless, a man who will not succeed in his life; for none of his offspring will succeed as a man sitting on the throne of David and a ruler over Yehudah anymore" (Yirmeyahu 22:30).
53)[line 53]"וּבְנֵי יְכָנְיָה אַסִּיר שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל בְּנוֹ""U'VNEI YECHONYAH: ASIR SHE'ALTI'EL BENO"- "The sons of Yechonyah: Asir, Shealtiel, his son" (Divrei ha'Yamim I 3:17).
54)[last line]שֶׁשָּׁתְלוֹSHASLO- He (HaSh-m) implanted him [at the time of his conception]