ROSH HASHANAH 23 (2 Sivan) - This Daf has been dedicated in memory of Harry Bernard Zuckerman, Baruch Hersh ben Yitzchak (and Miryam Toba), by his children and sons-in-law.

[23a - 47 lines; 23b - 46 lines]

1)[line 4]מקלעMIKLA- occurs

2)[line 8]איתנוסי הוא דאיתנוסיISNUSEI HU D'ISNUSEI- they accidentally [missed lighting torches due to that which they were drunk from the Shabbos meals]

3)[line 9]משום ביטול מלאכה לעם שני ימיםMI'SHUM BITUL MELACHAH L'AM SHNEI YAMIM- since [then] those in Bavel] would need to refrain from work for two days [of (a) Rosh Hashanah (RASHI); (b) every Rosh Chodesh (when women have a custom not to perform certain Melachos) (TOSFOS DH mi'Shum; see Insights to 18a) even when only the first was truly Rosh Chodesh, since the torches would not be lit at all that month]

4)[line 12]מיני ארזיםMINEI ARAZIM- there are ten species of trees (or other growths) called "Erez." All of these trees share the following characteristics: their central trunks grow straight up, their branches grow straight out, and their leaves (when applicable) point upward. Due to these features, the cedar is a symbol of pride and haughtiness (Ta'anis 20a).

5)[line 13]אדראIDRA- (probably) a Spanish Juniper tree

6)[line 14]מבליגאMAVLIGA- a certain resinous tree

7)[line 14]גולמישGULMISH- a cypress tree

8)[line 17]"אתן במדבר ארז שטה והדס ועץ שמן אשים בערבה ברוש תדהר ותאשור יחדו""ETEN BA'MIDBAR EREZ, SHITAH, VA'HADAS, V'ETZ SHAMEN; ASIM BA'ARAVAH BEROSH, TIDHAR, U'SE'ASHUR YACHDAV" - "I will place cedar trees, acacia trees, myrtle bushes, and pine trees in the desert; I will put cypress trees, fir trees, and box trees together in the plains." (Yeshayah 41:19) (SUKOS FOR THE RETURNING EXILES)

(a)When he describes the state of those who will return to Eretz Yisrael from the exile, Yeshayah ha'Navi depicts those who are poor, needy, and desperately thirsty. At that point, HaSh-m will suddenly cause rivers and fountains to flow, and produce pools of water in the desert through which to satisfy their thirst.

(b)HaSh-m promises to produce these different types of "Erez" for shade and to be used as building materials at a later point.

(c)The purpose of these miraculous events will be so that the nations of the world will realize and appreciate that HaSh-m is the One who has brought about all of these events.

9)[line 19]ארזאARZA- a cedar tree

10)[line 19]תורניתאTURNISA- a pine tree (O.F. pin)

11)[line 19]אסאASA- a myrtle tree

12)[line 20]אפרסמאAFARSEMA- a balsam tree

13)[line 20]ברתאBERATA- (a) a box-wood tree (O.F. buis) (RASHI here and to Shabbos 129a, citing RABEINU HA'LEVI); (b) a species of cedar tree (RASHI Shabbos 129a)

14)[line 20]שאגאSHA'AGA- a fir-tree (O.F. sap)

15)[line 21]שוריבנאSHURIVNA- an ebony tree (alt. a box-wood tree; alt. a cypress tree)

16)[line 23]בוטמיBUTMEI- an elm tree (O.F. olme)

17)[line 23]בלוטיBELUTEI- an oak tree (O.F. chesne)

18)[line 24]כסיתאKESISA- (O.F. coral) coral, a colorful, hardened growth built on the ocean floor by microorganisms

19)[line 25]עריAREI- a laurel tree (O.F. lor)

20)[line 25]דולביDULVEI- a chestnut tree (O.F. chastenier)

21)[line 25]"וצי אדיר לא יעברנו""V'TZI ADIR LO YA'AVRENU" - "[But there HaSh-m in His majesty will be for us a place of broad rivers and streams, where no galley with oars will be able to go,] nor shall a large ship be able to pass." (Yeshayah 33:21) (THE RIVER THAT WILL FLOW FROM THE KODESH HA'KODASHIM)

(a)Yeshayah ha'Navi prophesied that in the times of Mashi'ach a river will flow from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. It will begin as rivulets as thin as a snail's antennae, and will gradually increase in width. At one point it will become impassable for man.

(b)This river will flow around Eretz Yisrael (see Shekalim 17a), eventually running into the Mediterranean Sea. It will sweeten the salty water there, and cure various illnesses along its route.

22)[line 26]בורני גדולהBURNI GEDOLAH- a large ship (O.F. dromont)

23)[line 26]היכי עבדו?HEICHI AVDU?- what was it utilized for? There is a Girsa that is more specific: L'MAI AVDI LAH? L'MEISAK BAH KESISA - what did they use it for? To raise coral [from the ocean floor]

24)[line 27]מייתוMAISU- they would bring

25)[line 27]בתריסר ירחי שתאTREISAR YARCHEI SHASA- twelve months

26)[line 29]וטעני לה חלאTA'ANI LEHU CHALA- they filled it with sand

27)[line 29]דשכנאSHECHNA- it sinks

28)[line 29]ונחית בר אמוראיNACHIS BAR AMORA'EI- professional divers dive

29)[line 30]וקטר אטוני דכיתנאKATAR ATUNEI D'CHISNA- tie flaxen ropes

30a)[line 31]ונטלי חלאNATLI CHALA- they removed the sand

b)[line 31]ושדו לבראיV'SHADU L'VARA'I- and throw it out [of the ship]

31a)[line 32]וכמה דמדליאV'CHAMAH D'MIDALYA- and as [the boat] ascends

b)[line 32]עקרא ומתיאAKARA U'MESAYA- [the coral] is uprooted and raised

32)[line 32]ומחליף על חד תרין בכספאMACHLIF AL CHAD TREIN B'CHASPA- one [piece of coral] was exchangeable for two silver coins

33)[line 33]פרוותאPARVASA- (O.F. port) ports

34)[line 33]בי (ארמאי) [רומאי]BEI (ARAMA'I) [ROMA'I]- belonging to the (Arameans) [Romans]

35)[line 34]מסקןMASKAN- raised

36)[line 35]מרגנייתאMARGENAISA- pearls

37)[line 35]ומקרייא פרוותא דמשמהיגMIKARYA PARVASA D'MESHAMHIG- it is called The Royal Port. This is identified with an island in the Persian Gulf known for its pearl fisheries.

38)[line 45]"תחת הנחשת אביא זהב ותחת הברזל אביא כסף ותחת העצים ותחת האבנים ברזל""TACHAS HA'NECHOSHES AVI ZAHAV, V'SACHAS HA'BARZEL AVI CHESEF, V'SACHAS HA'ETZIM NECHOSHES, V'SACHAS HA'AVANIM BARZEL"- "In place of the copper (that had been plundered by the nations) I will bring gold, and in place of the iron I will bring silver; in place of the wood, copper, and in place of the stones, iron, [and I will place your officers for peace and your oppressors for kindness.]" (Yeshayah 60:17) - Yeshayah ha'Navi describes what will transpire when HaSh-m redeems us from the nations of the world. Not only will HaSh-m force the nations to replace what they had taken, but they will be forced to surpass them.

39)[line 46]תחת רבי עקיבא וחביריוTACHAS REBBI AKIVA V'CHAVEIRAV- The last two words of the verse which precedes the verse of, "Tachas ha'Nechoshes Avi Zahav..." (Yeshayah 60:17) are "Avir Yaakov" (ibid. 60:16). These words are an anagram for "Rebbi Akiva." This is why Rebbi Yochanan chose to discuss specifically the loss of Rebbi Akiva and his colleagues (CHASAM SOFER, quoting the ARIZAL).

40)[line 46]"ונקיתי דמם לא נקיתי""V'NIKEISI DAMAM LO NIKEISI"- " I will not cleanse for the blood that they spilt, [once HaSh-m dwells in Tziyon.]" (Yoel 4:21) - Yoel ha'Navi relates that although HaSh-m will accept the compensatory gifts of those nations that subjugated Klal Yisrael during their exile, He will not forgive them for the blood that they spilled.


41)[line 1]בירםBIRAM- a city on the border of Eretz Yisrael and Bavel

42)[line 1]פומבדיתאPUMBEDISA- a city in Bavel

43)[line 3]אבוקהAVUKAH- a torch

44a)[line 4]חרים וכיירCHARIM V'KAYAR- (a) elevated places whereupon torches were lit; (b) according to the Girsa of the Vilna Ga'on: HAREI MICHVAR - the mountainous area of Michvar. Michvar rises to a height of 700 meters above sea level and lies to the east of the Dead Sea; from its peak one can view Yerushalayim and Chevron. According to Targum Yonasan ben Uziel and Targum Yerushalmi, Michvar is Ya'zer, which is in the portion of Gad (Bamidbar 21:32 and 32:1). At the time of the second Beis ha'Mikdash, Michvar served an important strategic purpose, protecting the land of Yehudah (to which it belonged) from the Nabateans to the south and invaders from the east. Alexander Yanai built a fortress there that was later fortified by Herod. Following the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash, the defenders of Yerushalayim fled to Michvar, only to be massacred by the Romans.

b)[line 4]וגדר וחברותיהGEDER V'CHAVRUSEHA- Geder and the surrounding area. Geder was (a) a city in the Galilee not far from Teveryah (Megilah 2b), located on the slope of a mountain above the city of Chamesan, noted for its hot springs (Shabbos 109a); (b) Chamas Gader, an ancient city near the Kineret. Noted for its hot springs, it lies below the Jordanian city of Ummqeis, which is reputed to be the Biblical "Gadarah."

45)[line 5]ביני וביניBEINI U'VEINI- between [the other mountains mentioned in our Mishnah]

46)[line 5]להך גיסא דארץ ישראלL'HACH GISA D'ERETZ YISRAEL- lit. on the other side of Eretz Yisrael; along a different route from Yerushalayim to Bavel

47a)[line 6]מר חשיב דהאי גיסאMAR CHASHIV D'HEI GISA- the Tana of our Mishnah detailed one route

b)[line 7]חשיב דהאי גיסאU'MAR CHASHIV D'HEI GISA- and Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar detailed another route

48)[line 8]שמונה פרסאותSHEMONAH PARSA'OS- eight Parsa'os; this describes a distance of approximately 31.5 kilometers or 19.2 miles

49)[line 9]תלתין ותרתיןTELATIN V'TARTIN- thirty-two

50)[line 10]אסתתומי אסתתום להו דרכיISTATUMEI ISTATUM LEHU DARKEI- the [direct] roads were blocked [necessitating a circuitous route]

51)[line 11]"לכן הנני שך את דרכך בסירים [וגדרתי את גדרה ונתיבותיך לא תמצא]""LACHEN HINENI SACH ES DARKECH BA'SIRIM, [V'GADARTI ES GEDERAH, U'NESIVOSEHA LO SIMTZA]"- "I will therefore block your route with thorns, and I will surround her with a fence, and she will not find her paths." (Hoshea 2:8)- Hoshea ha'Navi accuses Klal Yisrael of infidelity to HaSh-m. He then describes the steps that HaSh-m plans in order to force Klal Yisrael to realize the error of their ways and return to Him.

52)[line 12]"[גדר דרכי בגזית] נתיבתי עוה""[GADAR DERACHAI B'GAZIS;] NESIVOSAI IVAH"- "[He fenced my roads with stones;] He distorted my paths." (Eichah 3:9)

53)[line 15]מתכנסיןMISKANSIN- were gathered

54)[line 17]לא היו זזין משם כל היוםLO HAYU ZAZIN MI'SHAM KOL HA'YOM (TECHUM SHABBOS)

(a)A person is only allowed to walk a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin (see Background to Eruvin 17:18).

(b)If one leaves this boundary, even if he did so mistakenly, then for the remainder of Shabbos he may not move beyond a distance of four Amos from where he finds himself once he realizes that he has gone too far. If the area in which he finds himself is walled in, then the entire area is considered to be his "Arba Amos" (TOSFOS DH Lo). Although the witnesses wishing to testify regarding the new moon were allowed to leave the Techum, they were not allowed to exit the courtyard in which they found themselves once their mission had been accomplished.

55)[line 19]חכמהCHACHAMAH- a midwife

56a)[line 20]הדליקהDELEIKAH- a fire

b)[line 21]הגייסGAYAS- marauding troops

c)[line 21]הנהרNAHAR- a suddenly overflowing river

d)[line 21]המפולתMAPOLES- a pile of rubble from an avalanche or a collapsed structure

57)[line 24]לישנא מעליא הואLISHNA MA'ALYA- a term that carries a positive connotation

58)[line 25]"ויעזקהו ויסקלהו""VA'YE'AZKEHU VA'YESAKLEHU"- "[My Beloved had a vineyard in a fertile corner.] He fenced it in and cleared it of stones, [He planted it with choice shoots and built a tower within it, and even dug a wine-press within it. He hoped it would produce grapes but it only produced berries.]" (Yeshayah 5:1-2) - The Navi metaphorically describes the relationship between HaSh-m and Klal Yisrael. HaSh-m's disappointment with his "crop" refers to his disillusionment with Klal Yisrael. The Navi subsequently describes how HaSh-m decides to destroy His vineyard because of its failure of it to live up to His expectations.

59)[line 26]לישנא דצעראLISHNA D'TZA'ARA- a term that carries a connotation of pain

60)[line 26]"והוא אסור באזקים""V'HU ASUR BA'ZIKIM" - "[The word that came to Yirmeyahu from HaSh-m, after Nevuzaradan, the 'chief butcher' sent him from Ramah,] when he took him bound in chains, [among all the exiles of Yerushalayim and Yehudah, who were being exiled to Bavel.]" (Yirmeyahu 40:1) (YIRMEYAHU'S DECISION)

(a)The murderous Nevuzaradan, acting on behalf of the Babylonian general, Nevuchadnetzar, captured Yerushalayim and slaughtered tens of thousands of innocent men, women, and children. The remainder were chained and sent into exile. Yirmeyahu ha'Navi was among those captured.

(b)Nevuzaradan, however, was instructed by Nevuchadnetzar to release Yirmeyahu from his chains. Nevuzaradan then gave Yirmeyahu a choice of either continuing on to Bavel with his fellow Jews, or returning to Eretz Yisrael to join Gedalyah ben Achikam and the small contingent of Jews who wished to rebuild the destroyed community.

(c)Yirmeyahu chose the latter option. HaSh-m informed Yirmeyahu that if he would go to Bavel then HaSh-m would stay in Eretz Yisrael, and if Yirmeyahu would stay then HaSh-m would go. Yirmeyahu figured that the need of those Jews in exile for HaSh-m's presence was greater than that of those in Eretz Yisrael.

61)[line 29]תרתי הוו עבדי בהוTARTEI HAVU AVDI B'HU- [what was implied by] both [the negative and positive connotations] were done to them

62)[line 33]לפני החמה או לאחר החמה?LIFNEI HA'CHAMAH O L'ACHAR HA'CHAMAH?- From the point of view of one standing in the northern hemisphere of the earth, the sun appears to follow a path that angles to the south, and then, from midday, back to the north. The moon follows this same path. At the time of the Molad they are at the same point along this path. From then on, the moon gradually drops behind the sun until it is visible. At this point, the Gemara understands this question to be, "Did you observe the new moon in front [and to the north of] the [setting] sun, or behind [and to the south of] the [setting] sun?"

63)[line 34]לצפונה או לדרומה?LI'TZFONAH O LI'DROMAH?- to the north [of the sun] or to the south [of the sun]?

64)[line 34]ולאין היה נוטה?L'AYIN HAYAH NOTEH?- which way did [the points of the crescent of the new moon] point?

65)[line 38]מכווניםMECHUVANIN- consistent

66)[line 39]ראשי דבריםROSHEI DEVARIM- generalities

67)[line 40]בפחי נפשB'FACHEI NEFESH- discouraged

68)[line 43]פגימתהPEGIMASAH- lit. what it is missing from it; the dark side of the moon

69)[line 44]"המשל ופחד עמו עושה שלום במרומיו""HAMSHEL VA'FACHAD IMO; OSEH SHALOM BI'MROMAV"- "Dominion and dread are with Him; He makes peace in His heavens." (Iyov 25:2)

70)[line 45]פגימתה של קשתPEGIMASAH SHEL KESHES- the missing part (i.e., the area beneath the arc) of a rainbow

71)[last line]דחלשה דעתהCHALSHAH DA'ATAH- it would feel badly