(a)If a hot piece of meat falls into hot milk or vice-versa, everyone agrees that both are forbidden; if both are cold, everyone agrees that both are permitted. In the latter case, may one eat both as they are, or do they require a Tikun?
(b)If one piece is hot and the other cold, Rav maintains that the top one is stronger. What does this mean in practical terms?
(c)What does Shmuel hold?
(a)If cold meat falls into cold milk - the meat must be washed, but the milk is permitted as it is.
(b)If one of them is hot and the other cold, Rav maintains that the top one is stronger - meaning that, if hot meat, shall we say, falls into cold milk, they both become forbidden, whereas if the meat was cold and the milk, hot, then they remain permitted.
(c)Shmuel holds that the bottom one overpowers the top one. Consequently, the reverse is true; if hot meat falls into cold milk, they remain permitted, whereas if the meat is cold and the milk, hot, they are forbidden.
(a)We learnt in our Mishnah that if gravy splashes from the wall of the oven back on to the Pesach, that spot requires Netilah. Similarly, if some gravy drips on to flour, one must remove a handful of flour. Why does this present Shmuel with a Kashya?
(b)How does Shmuel resolve the problem?
(c)We also learnt that if someone smeared the roasted Pesach of Yisraelim with Terumah-oil, then it requires peeling. Why is this a Kashya on Shmuel?
(d)How does he answer it?
(a)When the gravy splashes on to the wall of the oven, according to Shmuel, who holds that the bottom one overpowers the top one, the cold wall of the oven should cool down the gravy. If so, when it splashes back on to the Pesach, why should it require Netilah?
(b)Shmuel establishes the Mishnah by a hot oven.
(c)If someone smeared the roasted Pesach of Yisraelim with Terumah-oil - then this is a case of the bottom one overpowering the top one. Why then, will peeling off one layer suffice. It should be completely forbidden!?
(d)The reason that the Pesach is not completely forbidden when it is smeared with Terumah-oil is because we are speaking about a very small amount of oil, not enough to forbid the entire Pesach.
(a)In spite of the principle 'Hilchesa k'Rav b'Isurei', we rule like Shmuel in this instance. Why is that?
(b)If a hot solid falls into cold liquid, the solid requires peeling. Why is that?
(a)In spite of the principle 'Hilchesa k'Rav b'Isurei', we rule like Shmuel in this instance - because there is a Beraisa in support of Shmuel.
(b)If a hot solid falls into cold liquid, the solid requires peeling - because, during the split second that the cold liquid is cooling down the solid, some of it is bound to have become absorbed in the solid.
(a)Cold into cold is permitted. Will it make any difference if one of them was salted or pickled?
(b)To what degree must it be salted to make any difference?
(c)Why did Rava from Pashrunya permit a bird that fell into Kutach (a sharp condiment that contains both milk and salt)?
(d)If the bird was roasted, it would need to be peeled, even if both the bird and the milk were cold. Why is that?
(a)Cold into cold is permitted - but not if one of them was salted or pickled, because something that is salted is considered as if it was hot, and something that is pickled, as if it was cooked.
(b)It must be salted to the degree that it cannot be eaten due to its saltiness.
(c)Rava from Pashrunya permitted a bird that fell into Kutach - because there it did not contain enough salt to render it inedible.
(d)If the bird was roasted, it would need to be peeled, even if both the bird and the milk were cold - because roasting softens the meat and allows some of the cold milk to enter.
(a)In which case will ...
1. ... a roasted bird be completely forbidden?
2. ... even an uncooked bird need to be peeled?
1. A roasted bird will be completely forbidden (i.e. not even peeling will suffice) - if it has cracks.
2. Even an uncooked bird will need to be peeled - if it has been spiced.
(a)Rav forbids roasting a piece of fatty Shechutah meat in the same oven as a piece of lean Neveilah. Why?
(b)What will Rav hold in the reverse case, when the Neveilah is fatty and the Shechutah is lean?
(a)Rav forbids roasting a piece of fatty Shechutah meat in the same oven as a piece of lean Neveilah - because the smell from the fatty meat enters the lean meat and makes it fatty too; then the Neveilah meat exudes some of its own smell which enters the Shechutah meat.
(b)This would certainly be the Din in the reverse case, when the Neveilah is fatty and the Shechutah is lean - because then the Neveilah transmits directly into the Shechutah; it does not need the Shechutah to activate it.
(a)What does Levi hold in this regard?
(b)What can we infer from the Beraisa which forbids roasting two Pesachim together in one oven - 'even a kid together with a lamb', that is a proof for Levi?
(c)How will Rav, who is equally concerned about mixing the smells, learn the Beraisa?
(d)Why does the Gemara not want to establish the Beraisa by two pots?
(a)Levi holds that since the two do not really mix, only the smells, 'Reicha Lav Milsa Hi', and the Shechutah is therefore permitted, in both cases.
(b)If even a smell was prohibited, like Rav says, then why should the Beraisa (which forbids roasting two Pesachim together in one oven) - add 'even a kid together with a lamb'? This will only be a Chidush if it is a question of confusing the actual bodies of the lambs (i.e. that one might confuse the two, resulting in the two groups eating a Pesach on which they were not designated); whereas if it was a question of the smells mixing (like Rav maintains) why will a kid with a lamb be any more of a Chidush than two lambs?
(c)Rav will establish the Beraisa by two Pesachim on two spits with something dividing between them, so that the smells cannot mix. Consequently, our only concern is that the two groups might confuse the two animals.
(d)The Gemara does not want to establish the Beraisa by two pots - because the Pesach has to be roasted, not cooked.
(a)If someone places freshly-baked bread on a barrel of Terumah-wine, Rebbi Meir forbids the bread to non-Kohanim, Rebbi Yehudah permits it. What does Rebbi Yosi say?
(b)Like whom does Levi hold?
(c)How does Rav establish even Rebbi Yehudah to hold like him?
(d)According to Rav, in which case will everyone agree ...
1. ... that the bread will be forbidden to non-Kohanim?
2. ... that the bread will be permitted even to non-Kohanim?
(a)If someone places freshly-baked bread on a barrel of Terumah-wine - Rebbi Yosi permits wheat-bread but forbids barley-bread.
(b)Levi holds like Rebbi Yehudah.
(c)According to Rav, even Rebbi Yehudah will agree that 'Reicha Milsa Hi'. However, the Beraisa speaks when the bread is hot, but when the barrel is shut.
(d)According to Rav everyone will agree ...
1. ... that the bread will be forbidden to non-Kohanim - if the bread is hot and the oven, open.
2. ... that the bread will be permitted even to non-Kohanim - if the bread is cold and the oven, shut.
(a)On what basis does Rashi rule like Levi, despite the fact that most Tana'im (including Rebbi Yosi) support the opinion of Rav?
(b)Some Amora'im forbid bread baked in the same oven as roasted meat, and fish fried in the same oven as meat, to be eaten together with milk. Why does Mar bar Rav Ashi forbid the fish to be eaten even 'just with salt'?
(a)Rashi rules like Levi, despite the fact that most Tana'im (including Rebbi Yosi) support the opinion of Rav - because that is how Rava (a later opinion) holds in Avodah-Zarah.
(b)Mar bar Rav Ashi forbids bread baked in the same oven as roasted meat, and fish fried in the same oven as meat, even to be eaten together 'just with salt' (i.e. not with milk) - because the smell is harmful ,and because it causes leprosy.
(a)Once a Pesach is brought b'Tum'ah, it is also eaten b'Tum'ah. Why is that?
(b)The Tana lists five Korbenos Tzibur (three of bread, and two of meat) that are brought b'Tum'ah, but not eaten b'Tum'ah. What are they?
(a)Once a Pesach is brought b'Tum'ah, it is also eaten b'Tum'ah - because, as we have learnt earlier, the main objective of the Pesach is to be eaten.
(b)The five Korbenos Tzibur (three of bread, and two of meat) that are brought b'Tum'ah, but not eaten b'Tum'ah - are the Omer, the Shtei ha'Lechem, the Lechem ha'Panim, Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur (i.e. the lambs of the Shalmei Tzibur that are brought on Shavu'os) and the goats of the Rosh Chodesh Musaf.
(a)The Tana mentions deliberately the number 'five' to preclude the Chagigah of the fifteenth. What makes the Chagigah a Korban Tzibur?
(b)Now that it is considered a Korban Tzibur, and one that has a fixed time-period, why is it not brought b'Tuma'h?
(a)The Chagigah (like the Korban Pesach) is considered a Korban Tzibur - because everybody is obligated to bring it, and they all bring it simultaneously.
(b)The reason that it is not brought b'Tuma'h is because it has Tashlumin (i.e. it can be brought on the subsequent days of Pesach).
(a)The Tana does not mention the Se'irei Chatas of Yom-Tov independently, due to the fact that they are included in 'Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur'. Then why does he mention the Se'irei Chatas of Rosh Chodesh independently?
(b)What does Abaye learn from the Pasuk in Eichah "Kara Alai Mo'ed Lishbor Bachurai"? How do we learn from there that Rosh Chodesh is a Mo'ed?
(a)The Tana mentions the Se'irei Chatas of Rosh Chodesh independently - because (bearing in mind that we learn the Din of 'Ba b'Tum'ah' from "Mo'ed") we might otherwise have thought that the Se'irei Chatas of Rosh Chodesh are not included in Mo'ed (like the Se'irei Chata'os of Yom-Tov are).
(b)Abaye learns that from the Pasuk in Eichah "Kara Alai Mo'ed Lishbor Bachurai" - that Tamuz of that year was a full thirty days (i.e. Hash-m fixed Rosh Chodesh a day later than usual), in order that the spies should return on the eighth of Av, and Klal Yisrael would cry on the night of Tish'ah b'Av (instead of what would otherwise have been the eighth).