CONTACT BETWEEN HOT AND COLD FOODS
(Gemara): If a hot food fell onto another hot food (one of them is Asur, or one is meat and the other is milk), all agree that both are forbidden (each absorbs from the other);
If a cold food fell onto another cold food, all agree that both are permitted;
(Rav): If one was cold and the other was hot, the top food overpowers (it causes the bottom food to be [hot or cold] like itself - this determines whether or not they will absorb from each other. In any case, a layer of the bottom food absorbs from the top and it must be removed);
(Shmuel): The bottom food overpowers.
Question (Mishnah): If juice dripped onto the Cheres and splattered back, one must remove from that place.
Assumption: The Cheres was cold.
This is like Rav - the hot juice overpowers and heats the Cheres - the Cheres then heats the juice, which then returns to the meat and cooks it from the heat of the Cheres;
We require "Tzeli Esh," it cannot be roasted by anything else!
But according to Shmuel, the Cheres should cool the drop!
Answer: R. Yirmeyah answered elsewhere (the following question) by saying that the flour was hot - likewise, we can say that the Cheres was hot!
Question (Mishnah): If juice dripped onto flour, one must remove a handful of flour [and burn it, for the juice is cooked by the flour and absorbed into it].
Assumption: The flour was cold.
This is like Rav - the hot juice overpowers and heats the flour - the flour then heats the juice, the juice was cooked by something other than fire, it is not "Tzeli Esh";
But according to Shmuel, the flour should cool the drop [- it should suffice to remove a little where it fell, why is a handful required?! Rashi deletes this from the text - he assumes that the juice was fully roasted and hence permitted. R. Tam defends the text - we must say that it was only partially roasted, for otherwise further cooking could not forbid it!]
Answer (R. Yirmeyah): The flour was hot.
Question (Mishnah): If the Korban was smeared with Terumah oil - if it is a Chaburah of Kohanim, they may eat it;
If they are Yisraelim - if the Korban is raw, we rinse it; if it was roasted, we peel off the outer layer.
According to Rav, we understand why it suffices to peel off the outer layer - the cold oil overpowers (Chavas Da'as Bi'urim 92:24 - the oil is considered to be 'on top', even if it is on bottom, because it is held in place by the Korban);
But according to Shmuel, the hot Korban should overpower, the oil should forbid the entire Korban (it gets absorbed)!
Answer: Meat is smeared with a tiny amount of oil, therefore it does not spread throughout the entire Korban.
Support (for Shmuel - Beraisa #1): If a hot food fell onto another hot food, both are forbidden; the same applies if a cold food fell onto a hot food;
If a hot or cold food fell onto a cold food, one rinses them off.
Objection: If a hot food fell onto a cold food, why does it suffice to rinse them - surely, before the cold cooled off the hot, there was some absorption, one should have to peel off a layer!
Correction: Rather, if a hot food fell onto a cold food, one peels off a layer; if a cold food fell onto a cold food, he rinses them off.
(Beraisa #2): If hot meat fell into hot milk, or if cold fell into hot, they are forbidden;
If hot or cold fell into cold, one rinses them off.
Objection: If hot fell into cold, why does it suffice to rinse them - surely, before the cold cooled off the hot, there was some absorption, one should have to peel off a layer!
Correction: Rather, if hot fell into cold, one peels off a layer; if cold fell into cold, he rinses them.
(Beraisa): If cold fell into cold, he rinses them.
(Rav Huna): This is only if they were not salted - but if they were salted, they are forbidden.
This is like Shmuel, who says that a salted food is like a hot food [regarding absorptions], and pickling [in vinegar] is like cooking (foods pickled together absorb from each other).
(Rava): Shmuel says that a salted food is like a hot food only if it too salty to be eaten.
A [salted] bird fell into a jar of Kutach; R. Chinena brei d'Rava of Pashrunya permitted them.
Rava: He holds that Shmuel considers salted food like hot food only if it too salty to be eaten - the bird was not so salty.
This is only if it (the bird) was raw - if it was roasted, we peel off the outer layer;
This is only if it does not have cracks and was not seasoned - if it had cracks or was seasoned, it is forbidden.
FOODS ROASTED TOGETHER
(Rav): If fat slaughtered meat was roasted with lean Neveilah meat, it is forbidden.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: The fat transfers from one to the other and back.
(Levi): Even if lean slaughtered meat was roasted with fat Neveilah meat, it is permitted.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: It absorbs a mere smell - smell is insignificant.
A case occurred, a kid was roasted with a pig in the Reish Galusa's house - Levi permitted it.
Question (Beraisa): We may not roast two Pesachim together on account of mixing.
Suggestion: This means that the tastes mix [and one will taste from a Pesach on which he is not Manuy] - this refutes Levi!
Answer: No, it is forbidden lest the two animals get mixed up.
Support (Seifa): This is forbidden even if one is a goat and the other is a lamb.
We understand this if the concern is lest they get mixed up (Rashi - even these could get mixed; R. Chananel - we decree on account of similar animals);
But if the concern is transfer of taste, a goat and a lamb are just like two goats! (Seemingly, it is a bigger Chidush to forbid Min b'Eino Mino, which depends on Nosen Ta'am, whereas since some forbid Min b'Mino b'Mashehu! Tzelach - we do not Mevatel Isurim l'Chatchilah, therefore it is not a bigger Chidush.)
Question: If the only the concern is lest they get mixed up, but we are not concerned for transfer of taste, this refutes Rav!
Answer (R. Yirmeyah): The case is, the Pesachim were cooked in two pots.
Objection: This cannot be (Pesach must be roasted over a fire)!
Answer: Rather, it is as if they were cooked in two pots (a mound of coals or ashes separates the two spits) - the Beraisa says, we may not roast two Pesachim together on account of mixing;
This refers to mixing of tastes - and even if it is as if they are in two pots [and the tastes will not mix], it is forbidden lest they get mixed up, even a goat and a lamb.
(Rav Mari): Tana'im argue about this:
(Mishnah - R. Meir): If hot bread from an oven was placed on top of a barrel of Terumah wine, it is forbidden to a Zar;
R. Yehudah permits;
R. Yosi permits [if the bread was of] wheat, but forbids barley, for barley absorbs [the smell of the wine].
Suggestion: R. Meir says that smell is important, and R. Yehudah says that it is not!
Partial affirmation: Indeed, Levi must say that Tana'im argue about this (clearly, R. Meir and R. Yosi are concerned for smell - Levi hold like R. Yehudah).
Suggestion: Rav must agree that Tana'im argue about this!
Rejection: No - he can say that all agree that smell is significant, like Rabah bar bar Chanah explained:
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): All [the Tana'im] agree that if warm bread was put on top of an open barrel, it is forbidden (it absorbs a strong smell);
All permit cold bread that was put on top of a closed barrel;
They argue about warm bread on a closed barrel and cold bread on an open barrel;
This (slaughtered meat roasted with Neveilah, which Rav forbids) is also like warm bread on an open barrel!
(Rav Kahana brei d'Rav Chinena - Beraisa): If bread was baked in an oven with roasting meat, it may not be eaten with Kutach.
A case occurred, fish was roasted with meat - Rava of Parzakiya forbade eating it with Kutach;
Mar bar Rav Ashi forbade eating it even with salt (i.e. alone), for it (a mixture of fish and meat) is prone to cause odor and Tzara'as.
KORBANOS BROUGHT B'TUM'AH
(Mishnah): Five Korbanos [that are normally eaten] are brought b'Tum'ah but may not be eaten b'Tum'ah - the Omer, Shtei ha'Lechem, Lechem ha'Panim, Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur (two lambs brought with Shtei ha'Lechem), and goats [Chata'os] brought on Rosh Chodesh.
Pesach that is brought b'Tum'ah is eaten b'Tum'ah, for the sole reason it is brought is in order to be eaten.
(Gemara) Question: It says five - what does this come to exclude?
Answer: It excludes Chagigah of the 15th;
One might have thought that since it is a Korban Tzibur with a fixed time, it is brought b'Tum'ah - the Mishnah teaches that this is not so - since it can be brought throughout the festival, it is not Docheh Shabbos, and therefore is not Docheh Tum'ah either.
Question: Why doesn't it count goats [Chata'os] brought on festivals?
Answer: It counts Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur (we understand that other animals also are offered b'Tum'ah but not eaten).