(a)According to the Tana Kama, as soon as one sees a light on Motzei Shabbos, one recites a Berachah over it. What does Rebbi Yehudah say?
(b)What is the problem with Rebbi Yochanan, who rules like Rebbi Yehudah, who also said that one only recites a Berachah over the light on Motzei Shabbos? How does this appear to contradict what he (Rebbi Yochanan) just said?
(c)Over which kind of flame do we recite a Berachah only on Motzei Shabbos, and over which kind may we recite it even on Motzei Yom Kippur?
(a)Rebbi Yehudah says 'Sodran al ha'Kos'.
(b)Rebbi Yochanan just said that one recites a Berachah over light both on Motzei Shabbos and on Motzei Yom Kippur. So how can he rule like Rebbi Yehudah that one only recites a Berachah over light on Motzei Shabbos?
(c)On Motzei Shabbos - one recites a Berachah even on a flame that was just lit, but not on Motzei Yom Kippur, when one may only use a light that rested on Yom Kippur (i.e. that was either lit before Yom Kippur and burnt the entire day, or that was lit b'Heter - for a woman who gave birth or for a very sick person.
(a)Among the ten things that Hash-m created Erev Shabbos at dusk were 1. Miriam's well; 2. Kesav; 3. Mechatev; 4. the cave in which Moshe stood. What was the shape of Miriam's well?
(b)What is the difference between the Kesav and the Mechatev?
(c)Who else stayed in the same cave as Moshe?
(d)Tana'im add to the list - fire, the first mule, the ram of the Akeidah, the Shamir, and the first pair of tongs, without which tongs cannot be manufactured. What is the significance of ...
1. ... the first mule?
2. ... the Shamir?
(a)Miriam's well was round so that it could roll with Kelal Yisrael as they traveled in the desert.
(b)The Kesav - is the shape of the letters; the Mechatev - the pen with which they were written.
(c)Eliyahu ha'Navi stayed in the same cave as Moshe Rabeinu - for forty days.
1. "Ein Kol Chadash Tachas ha'Shemesh" - which the creation of a mule (a new species formed form a combination of two existing ones) would appear to be. Consequently, Hash-m formed the first mule from the earth, to prevent a new creation.
2. The Shamir was a type of worm, which, when held above any object on which one had drawn a mark, would cut into the object following the shape of the mark - without detracting from the its volume (i.e. it did not create any shavings).
(a)How do we reconcile the Beraisa, which gives the time of the creation of fire as being on the first Motzei Shabbos, with the Beraisa, which states that it was Erev Shabbos at dusk?
(b)Seven things were created before the world. Which of them do we learn from ...
1. ... "Hash-m Kanani Reishis Darko" (Mishlei)?
2. ... "b'Terem Harim Yaladu ... Tashev Enosh Ad Daka ... "?
3. ... "Vayita Hash-m Elokim Gan b'Eden Mikedem"?
(c)After Gehinom and Hash-m's Throne, what are the remaining two?
(d)How do we reconcile the previous Beraisa, which gives the time of the creation of Gehinom as Erev Shabbos at dusk, with this Beraisa, which claims that it was created before the world was?
(a)Wordly fire was created on Motzei Shabbos; the fire of Gehinom, on Erev Shabbos at dusk.
(b)We learn ...
1. ... from "Hash-m Kanani Reishis Darko" - that Torah preceded the world;
2. ... from "b'Terem Harim Yaladu ... Tashev Enosh Ad Daka ... " - that Teshuvah preceded the world, and from
3. ... from "Vayita Hash-m Elokim Gan b'Eden Mikedem" - that Gan Eden preceded the world.
(c)The remaining two things that were created before the world are the Beis Hamikdash and the name of Mashi'ach.
(d)The area of Gehinom was created before the world was, but the fire, on Erev Shabbos at dusk.
(a)Why does the Torah not write 'Ki Tov' on the second day of the creation?
(b)But didn't we just say that Gehinom was created on Erev Shabbos at dusk? When was it created? And what happened on Motzei Shabbos?
(c)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Ve'yatz'u v'Ra'u b'Figrei ha'Anashim ... Ki Tolatam Lo Tamus, v'Isham Lo Sichbeh"?
(d)How was the the first man-made fire invented?
(a)The Torah omits the words 'Ki Tov' on the second day of the creation - because the fire of Gehinom was created then (to make up for the deficiency however, the Torah writes on the sixth day "va'Yar Hash-m es Kol Asher Asah, v'Hinei Tov Me'od" - presumably because, whereas Gehinam as such, is a terrible thing, when seen as part of the entire creation, it plays a major role in shaping the world).
(b)In fact, the Gemara concludes, the fire of Gehinom was created on the second day (the day of division of the water - the core of Machlokes). On Friday, Hash-m decided to create worldly fire, although it was only created on Motzei Shabbos (when it was needed).
(c)We learn from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Ve'yatz'u v'Ra'u b'Figrei ha'Anashim ... Ki Tola'tam Lo Tamus, v'Isham Lo Sichbeh" - that the fire of Gehinom will never be extinguished.
(d)It was Adam who invented the first fire. He was worried about the darkness (which descended - due his sin - but only on Motzei Shabbos); until Hash-m put the understand into his head to take two stones and rub them together, producing a fire.
(a)What do the first man-made fire and the first mule have in common?
(b)According to another opinion, it was Ana who created the first mule. Who was Anah (Tzivon's son or Tzivon's brother) and what do the Dorshei Chamuros say about him?
(c)The Gemara learns from the Pasuk in Vayishlach "Hu Anah" that the two Anah's mentioned are one and the same. How do we derive that from there?
(a)After inventing the first fire, Adam brought a horse and a donkey and bred them - to create the first mule.
(b)Ana was both the son and the brother of Tzivon. How is that possible? Because Tzivon, the son of Se'ir ha'Chori. However, he had relations with his mother, and it was from that relationship, that Ana was born. It is significant, the Dorshei Chamuros say, that Ana, himself a Mamzer, brought Mamzeirim (mules) into the world.
(c)The Gemara learns from the Pasuk in Vayishlach "Hu Anah" that the two Anah's mentioned are one and the same - because "Hu Ana" implies that this is the same Ana as the one mentioned before.
(a)In addition to the four things mentioned above that were created Erev Shabbos at dusk, the Beraisa also includes in the list, the Manna, the rainbow, the Luchos, Moshe's grave, the mouth of Bilam's donkey and the mouth of the earth that swallows the Resha'im. Which two things (besides Adam's hunting garment) do some Tana'im in the latter Beraisa, add to this list?
(b)What was special about Adam's garment?
(a)Some Tana'im in the latter Beraisa, add to this list (besides Adam's garment) - Aharon's stick (including its almonds and flowers) and the demons (which will be discussed in great length in the final chapter of this Masechta).
(b)Adam's hunting garment had on it the picture of every animal and wild beast. Whenever he wore it whilst hunting, it would attract all the animals, which he was then able to catch. It was later handed to Nimrod, and then to Esav.
(a)Nobody knows when they will die, when they will be consoled from their troubles, how far the Divine Justice will go, what the next person is thinking or from which trade or profession he will earn his Parnasah. What are the other three things in the list?
(b)Why is it essential for ...
1. ... a corpse to become putrid soon after death?
2. ... produce to go bad?
3. ... a deceased relative to become forgotten?
(c)What else do others include in the inevitables list?
(a)Nobody knows when they will die, when they will be consoled from their troubles, how far the Divine Justice will go what the next person is thinking, or from which trade or profession he will earn his Parnasah. Nor do they know when Malchus Beis David will return, when Malchus Edom (and Malchus Yishmael) will become extinct.
(b)It is essential for ...
1. ... a corpse to become putrid soon after death - because otherwise, his relatives would hide the deceased somewhere in the house, so as to be able to see him constantly, and keep him in their memories (and not bury him as they are supposed to).
2. ... a deceased relative to become forgotten - because otherwise, they would never be consoled over those who are dear to them, and remain miserable until their death.
3. ... produce to go bad - because otherwise, the wealthy would horde it, causing famine.
(c)Others add that it is essential for a coin to be spent - because otherwise, people would horde their money, leaving a shortage in the world, wrecking the economy.
(a)Working on Tish'ah b'Av is also subject to Minhag. What kind of people refrain from work even in a town where the Minhag is to work?
(b)What does Raban Shimon ben Gamliel say about this?
(c)What are the ramifications of Shmuel's statement 'Ein Ta'anis Tzibur b'Bavel Ela Tish'ah b'Av Bilevad'?
(a)Talmidei-Chachamim refrain from work even in a town where the Minhag is to work.
(b)Raban Shimon ben Gamliel adds - that everyone should make himself a Talmid-Chacham in this regard.
(c)'Ein Ta'anis Tzibur b'Bavel Ela Tish'ah b'Av Bilevad' - means that the Chumros of Tish'ah b'Av (to stop eating already at nightfall and to refrain from working etc.) do not apply with regard to other fast-days that the Beis-Din may institute. This is because it is only the fasts that are instituted when there is no rain that have the stringency of Tish'ah b'Av, and that is a fast that is never necessary in Bavel, because Bavel does not need rain.
(a)What does the Mishnah in Ta'anis mean (and what does it not mean) when it writes (with regard to a Ta'anis Tzibur) 'Ochlin v'Shosin mi'be'Od Yom'?
(b)Ho does that enable us to reconcile Shmuel's two statements, one, as quoted in 8c, and the other: 'Tish'ah b'Av Bein Hashemashos she'Lo Mutar'? Why would they otherwise have clashed?
(c)The Gemara thought to prove what we just said from the Beraisa 'Ein Bein Tish'ah b'Av l'Yom ha'Kipurim Ela she'Zeh Sefeiko Asur' v'Zeh Sefeiko Mutar'. This proof however, is not conclusive. What else might the Beraisa mean?
(a)When the Mishnah writes (regarding a Ta'anis Tzibur) 'Ochlin v'Shosin mi'be'Od Yom' - it comes to preclude nightfall, but not Bein Hashemashos (which is permitted).
(b)We thought that when Shmuel said 'Ein Ta'anis Tzibur b'Bavel Ela Tish'ah b'Av Bilevad' - he was referring to the prohibition of eating already at Bein Hashemashos, which clashed with his second statement 'Tish'ah b'Av Bein Hashemashos Shelo Mutar'. To make matters worse, we then thought that 'Ochlin v'Shosin mi'be'Od Yom' (but not Bein Hashemashos) corroborates his first statement, creating a difficulty with his second statement. But now that we explain 'Ochlin v'Shosin mi'be'Od Yom' to preclude night-time and not Bein Hashemashos, we have resolved all our problems, and when he said 'Ein Ta'anis Tzibur b'Bavel Ela Tish'ah b'Av Bilevad', he was not referring to Bein Hashemashos, but to the other Chumros of Tish'ah b'Av.
(c)'Ein Bein Tish'ah b'Av l'Yom ha'Kipurim Ela she'Zeh Sefeiko Asur' v'Zeh Sefeiko Mutar' - need not be referring to Bein Hashemashos (which could well be Asur by Tish'ah b'Av, too), but to the Sefeika d'Yoma (i.e. when they were not certain in Bavel which day Rosh Hashanah had been proclaimed, they were obligated to fast two days on Yom Kippur, but not on Tish'ah b'Av).
(a)Rava obligates pregnant and feeding women to complete the fast on Tish'ah b'Av, and concludes his statement with the words 'u'Bein Hashemashos she'Lo Asur' - and this is also the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan. What then, does Rebbi Yochanan mean when he says 'Tish'ah b'Av Einah k'Ta'anis Tzibur'?
(b)Although the previous statement and explanation are Halachically correct, Rebbi Yochanan cannot have meant that. Why not?
(c)So we explain Rebbi Yochanan with regard to Tefilas Ne'ilah. How do we reconcile this with his other statement 'u'Levai she'Yispalel Adam Kol ha'Yom Kulo'?
(d)Alternatively, we explain Rebbi Yochanan's statement 'Tish'ah b'Av Einah k'Ta'anis Tzibur' - with reference to twenty-four. What does that mean?
(a)When Rebbi Yochanan (who is strict by Bein Hashemashos of Tish'ah b'Av) says 'Tish'ah b'Av Einah k'Ta'anis Tzibur' - he means with regard to Melachah (which he permits).
(b)Rebbi Yochanan however, cannot have been referring to Melachah - because we know that already from our Mishnah, which explicitly writes that Melachah is a matter of Minhag, and not absolutely Asur (like it is on a Ta'anis Tzibur).
(c)When Rebbi Yochanan rules leniently with regard to Tefilas Ne'ilah, he means that it is not obligatory to Daven Ne'ilah on Tish'ah b'Av; whereas when he rules 'U'levai she'Yispalel Adam Kol ha'Yom Kulo' - he is referring to voluntary Tefilos, so there is no clash between the two statements.
(d)When we explain Rebbi Yochanan's statement 'Tish'ah b'Av Einah k'Ta'anis Tzibur' with reference to twenty-four - we mean that it is not necessary to insert the six Berachos that one adds to the Amidah on a Ta'anis Tzibur, on Tish'ah b'Av.
(a)How does Rav Papa explain 'Tish'ah b'Av Einah k'Ta'anis Tzibur' Lechumra, which will actually conform with his (and Rava's) statement 'u'Bein Hashemashos she'Lo Asur'?
(b)Then how does Rebbi Yochanan explain the Beraisa 'Ein Bein Tish'ah b'Av l'Yom ha'Kipurim Ela she'Zeh Sefeiko Asur' v'Zeh Sefeiko Mutar'?
(c)What can we deduce from there, and how does this bear out Rebbi Elazar ruling regarding placing one's finger into water on Tish'ah b'Av?
(a)Rav Papa explains 'Tish'ah b'Av Einah k'Ta'anis Tzibur' - to mean that Tish'ah b'Av does not have the Din of the first Ta'aniyos (of a Ta'anis Tzibur), when eating during Bein Hashemashos is permitted, but like the latter fasts, when it is forbidden. This corroborates our initial understanding (that 'Einah k'Ta'anis Tzibur' refers to Bein Hashemashos), only not Lekulah, but Lechumra.
(b)According to Rav Papa, Rebbi Yochanan will explain the Beraisa 'Ein Bein Tish'ah b'Av l'Yom ha'Kipurim Ela she'Zeh Sefeiko Asur' v'Zeh Sefeiko Mutar' - to refer to Sefeika d'Yoma, as we explained in 9c.
(c)We can deduce from the Beraisa 'Ein Bein Tish'ah b'Av l'Yom ha'Kipurim Ela she'Zeh Sefeiko Asur' v'Zeh Sefeiko Mutar' - that, with regard to everything else,Tish'ah b'Av has the same Din as Yom Kippur. That bears out Rebbi Elazar's ruling, which forbids even placing one's finger in cold water on Tish'ah b'Av.
(a)What is the problem with Rebbi Elazar's ruling from the Beraisa 'Ein Bein Tish'ah b'Av l'Ta'nis Tzibur Ela she'Zeh Asur ba'Asi'as Melachah ... ? What can we deduce from there that appears to clash with Rebbi Elazar's statement?
(b)The Gemara answers 'Tana Kuli Kuli ka'Tani'. What does this mean?
(a)It would appear from the Beraisa 'Ein Bein Tish'ah b'Av l'Ta'nis Tzibur Ela she'Zeh Asur ba'Asi'as Melachah ... ', that, in all other regards, Tish'ah b'Av shares the same Din as a Ta'anis Tzibur, and we have learnt by a Ta'anis Tzibur 'Tanya, k'she'Amru Asur bi'Rechitzah, Lo Amru Ela Kol Gufo, Aval Panav, Yadav v'Raglav, Lo' - so how can Rebbi Elazar forbid even placing one's hands in water on Tish'ah b'Av?
(b)The entire Beraisa in question is only concerned with telling us how the one case is not more lenient that the other. Consequently, when the Tana said 'Ein Bein Tish'ah b'Av l'Ta'nis Tzibur Ela she'Zeh Asur ba'Asi'as Melachah ... ', it meant to tell us that Melachah is the only leniency that Tish'ah b'Av has over a Ta'anis Tzibur; it is however, possible, that it does have Chumros. Consequently, even though washing face, hands and feet is permitted on a Ta'anis Tzibur, it does not follow that it is also permitted on Tish'ah b'Av.