(a)Maror incorporates five different species: Chazeres, Ulshin, Timcha, Charchevina and Maror. Chazeres is (romaine) lettuce, and Ulshin, endives. What is ...
1. ... Timcha?
2. ... Charchevina?
(b)Does it make any difference whether the Maror that one uses is ...
1. ... moist or dried?
2. ... raw, pickled or cooked?
(c)What is the difference between 'Mevushal' and 'Shaluk'?
(d)Can one eat half a k'Zayis of one species of Maror and half a k'Zayis of another?
1. ... Timcha - is Chrain i.e. the horseradish that is used for Maror universally.
2. ... Charchevina - is tendrils that grow around the date-palm.
(b)It makes no difference whether the Maror that one uses is ...
1. ... moist or dried.
2. But if it is pickled or cooked, one is not Yotzei.
(c)'Mevushal' means cooked, 'Shaluk', well-cooked.
(d)One may eat half a k'Zayis of one species of Maror and half a k'Zayis of another.
(a)Is one Yotzei with the stalks of the Maror?
(b)Is one Yotzei with ...
1. ... Demai?
2. ... Ma'aser Rishon?
3. ... Ma'aser Sheni and Hekdesh?
(c)Ma'aser Yerek is only mid'Rabanan. Why is one then not Yotzei the Mitzvah of Maror with Tevel?
(d)Is one Yotzei with garden-endives?
(a)One is Yotzei with the stalks of the Maror.
(b)one is Yotzei with ...
1. ... Demai, and with ...
2. ... Ma'aser Rishon - provided Terumas Ma'aser was removed, and with ...
3. ... Ma'aser Sheni and Hekdesh - provided they have been removed.
(c)One is not Yotzei the Mitzvah of Maror with Tevel (even though it is only Tevel mid'Rabanan) because it is a Mitzvah ha'Ba'ah ba'Aveirah - which applies even by an Aveirah mid'Rabanan (like by the case of Tevel in a pot without a hole - on 35b).
(d)There is no difference between endives that grow in a field and garden-endives.
(a)Various Tana'im add different species to the list of what one may use for Maror. Rebbi Yehudah adds 'Kol she'Yesh Bo S'raf', and Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah, 'Kol she'Panav Machsifin'; according to Acherim, all bitter Yarak contains both of these specifications. What do they mean?
(b)What did Ravina point out to Rav Acha Brei d'Rava, when he found him looking for Maror (the last of the five species mentioned in the Mishnah)?
(c)Why is Chazeres called Chasa?
(d)And why are the Egyptians compared to Maror?
(a)'Kol she'Yesh Bo S'raf' - means any kind of herb that, when one cuts it and squeezes the location of the cut, a white milky substance will emerge. 'Kol she'Panav Machsifin' - means any kind of herb that (unlike leek, which is a dark green) is a pale green color.
(b)When Ravina saw Rav Acha Brei d'Rava looking for Maror - he pointed out to him that priority should not be given to the species which was the most bitter, but rather the species which is first mentioned in the Mishnah: namely, Chazeres, lettuce; he added that various other Amora'im also gave precedence to Chazeres.
(c)Chazeres is called Chasa (and the reason that the prime Mitzvah is with Chazeres - see Agados Maharsha) - as a hint that Hash-m will take pity on us like he did in Egypt (perhaps the hint is manifest here because of the Pasuk in Koheles - "v'Elokim Yevakesh Nirdaf", because more than anything else, it is suffering that we suffer, that opens the gates of Divine mercy).
(d)The Egyptians compared to Maror - because, just like Maror is initially soft, but later the stalk becomes extremely hard, so too, did the Egyptians first hire our forefathers (they behaved sweetly towards them), but that sweetness then turned into bitterness, and they began to enslave them.
(a)From where do we know that Maror is a vegetable, and not ...
1. ... the gall of a fish?
2. ... the bark of bitter Hirduf-tree (which Moshe threw into the water to make it turn sweet?
3. ... a plant that is poisonous to animals called 'Harzifu'?
(b)From where do we know that Maror incorporates a choice of five species, and not just two (which we would know from the plural form of "Merorim")?
(a)We know that Maror is a vegetable, and not ...
1. ... the gall of a fish - because Maror is compared to Matzah, which grows from the ground, so too, must Maror grow from the ground.
2. ... the bark of the bitter Hirduf-tree - from the Hekesh to Matzah, which teaches us that Maror must be seeds like Matzah, which the bitter Hirduf tree is not;
3. ... a plant that is poisonous to animals called 'Harzifu' - also from the Hekesh to Matzah; because Maror must be, like Matzah, something that can be purchased with Ma'ser-Sheni money, which, in turn, must be edible, which Harzifu is not.
(b)We know that Maror incorporates a choice of five species, and not just one, or two - because Maror is derived from Matzah by which, there is a choice of many kinds, so too, by Maror, is there a choice of many kinds.
(a)What do we initially take Rav to mean when he permits sowing all the five species of Maror in one row?
(b)What does the Gemara ask on Rav from the Mishnah in Kil'ayim 'Chazeres va'Chazeres Galin, Ulshin v'Ulshei Sadeh' ... Einam Kil'ayim Zeh ba'Zeh'?
(c)Why can we not answer that the Mishnah really means to permit each of the species mentioned there with any of the others?
(d)The Gemara replies that what Rav really means is that one may sow them in one row, provided one follows the specifications set out in the Mishnah in Kil'ayim and in Shabbos. Why do we not know that from those very Mishnahs (according to the Gemara's initial contention)?
(a)We initially believe Rav to be saying that the Isur of Kil'ayim does not apply to any combination of the species which make up the ingredients of Maror
(b)The Gemara asks that, since the Mishnah in Kil'ayim permits specifically Chazeres and Chazeres Galin, Ulshin and Ulshei Sadeh',does this not imply that one of one pair together with one of the other pair does constitute Kil'ayim?
(c)We cannot answer that the Mishnah really means to permit all of the species mentioned there with each other - because Rav specifically pointed out that the Tana only permits them in pairs.
(d)The Gemara initially thinks that we do not know that from those very Mishnahs - which only permit sowing the types of 'Zera'im' (such as legumes), but vegetables, which we believe at this stage, need more space to nurture from the earth, will perhaps be forbidden to sow, even if one follows the specifications laid down by the Mishnah.
(a)The Gemara's initial contention that seeds might well be permitted in the row, but vegetables (which include all the species of Maror), are not, is proved wrong from the Mishnah in Kil'ayim. What does the Mishnah in Kil'ayim say?
(b)What is wrong with the suggestion that Rav needs to inform us that the five kinds of Maror are vegetables, and not seeds?
(c)So why does he need to tell us that all five kinds of Maror may be sown in one row? What is his Chidush, and what has that to do with Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina's Din regarding a hardened cabbage-stalk?
(a)The above contention is disproved from the Mishnah there, which states that it is only vegetables that are permitted in the row, and not Zera'im.
(b)How can we even suggest that Rav needs to inform us that the five kinds of Maror are vegetables, and not seeds - when the Mishnah specifically writes 've'Elu Yerakos she'Adam Yotzei Bahen', and this text is endorsed by a number of Amora'im?
(c)True, most of those mentioned in our Mishnah are established vegetables. There is however, one case which we might have thought is considered a type of 'seed'- namely Chazeres, and it is that which Rav is coming to permit, by establishing it as a vegetable. Why would we have thought that Chazeres is a seed? Because its stalk eventually hardens (as we learnt earlier in the Sugya) like seeds tend to do; so we might have compared it to a cabbage-stalk, which Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina gave the Din of a seed, to require a larger row (of a Beis Rova ha'Kav) before other species may be sown beside it.
(a)Rav Chisda establishes the Reisha of our Mishnah, which permits only the stalks of Maror whether they are moist or dried, but not its leaves. But can we not infer from the Seifa of the Mishnah, which mentions the stalks, that the Reisha is talking about the leaves?
(b)What is the Kashya on Rav Chisda from Rebbi Meir in the Beraisa, who says 'Yotz'in Bahen u've'Kelach she'Lahen Bein Lachin, Bein Yeveishin'?
(c)How does the Gemara resolve the Kashya?
(d)What do the Rabanan hold?
(a)We cannot infer from the Seifa of the Mishnah, which mentions the stalks, that the Reisha is talking about the leaves - because the Seifa is coming to establish the Reisha, not to add to it (in which case, the Seifa is actually corroborating Rav Chisda's Chidush - namely, that it is only the stalks of Maror that the Mishnah permits, moist or dried, but not its leaves).
(b)When Rebbi Meir says in the Beraisa 'Yotz'in Bahen u've'Kelach she'Lahen Bein Lachin, Bein Yeveishin' - does this not imply that even the stalk is permitted, wet or dry?
(c)No, answers the Gemara, 'Bein Lachin, Bein Yeveishin' refers to Bahen (the leaves), and not to 'u've'Kelach she'Lahen'.
(d)The Rabanan say that one is only Yotzei with wet Maror, but not when it is dry (the author of our Mishnah therefore, is Rebbi Meir).
(a)Rebbi Meir and the Rabanan agree that one is Yotzei with withered Maror. Why is Maror that has withered any better than Maror that has dried?
(a)Maror that has withered still retains its original taste, whereas Maror that has dried does not.
(a)Rebbi Akiva (on 36a) permitted Matzah of Ma'aser Sheni in Yerushalayim, so he will certainly permit Maror. Rebbi Yosi Hagelili forbade Matzah, but perhaps he will permit Maror. What gives Maror of Ma'aser Sheni the edge over Matzah?
(b)Why can we not be referring to nowadays, when Maror is only mid'Rabanan, whereas Matzah is mi'd'Oraisa?
(c)What is the Gemara's conclusion?
(a)The Gemara thinks that Rebbi Yosi Hagelili might concede that Maror of Ma'aser Sheni is permitted (even though Matzah is not, because whereas Tevel of grain is d'Oraisa, Tevel of vegetables is only d'Rabanan.
(b)We cannot be referring to nowadays, when Maror is only mid'Rabanan, whereas Matzah is mid'Oraisa - because nowadays, Ma'aser Sheni is not eaten in Yerushalayim. And even according to those who say that the initial Kedushah of Yerushalayim remains, nevertheless, Rami bar Chama, who posed the She'eilah, should have added the word 'nowadays' if that is what he was asking.
(c)The Gemara concludes that there is no difference in this regard, between Matzah and Maror (so he will not be Yotzei).
(a)If soaking the bran of Chametz is forbidden, why is Chalitah permitted? What is Chalitah?
(b)May one rub bran onto one's wet body?
(c)What about chewing wheat to place on a wound?
(a)Chalitah means soaking in hot boiling water. The boiling water will not allow the dough to rise. Note: The Gaonim forbade Chalitah nowadays (unless it is for a very sick person) since we are not sure how it is done - see Rosh, Siman 20. Lesisah too, they forbade for similar reasons - ibid. end of Siman 25.
(b)It is permitted to rub bran onto one's wet body. See Rosh Siman 21, who explains this to refer to perspiration, (since human perspiration does not turn something Chametz), but not to water.
(c)Chewing wheat to place on a wound is also forbidden.
(a)'Tanu Rabanan: Elu Devarim she'Ein Ba'in li'Yedei Chametz: 'he'Afuy, v'ha'Mevushal, v'Chalut she'Chalto b'Roschin'. Why can 'he'Afuy v'ha'Mevushal ' not be understood literally?
(b)Then what does it mean?
(c)Under what condition will water dripping on to flour not render it Chametz?
(a)'Elu Devarim she'Ein Ba'in li'Yedei Chametz: 'he'Afuy, v'ha'Mevushal' cannot be understood literally - because there is no reason for the bread not to become Chametz whilst it is cooking.
(b)What the Beraisa must therefore mean is 'he'Afuy she'Bishlah'.
(c)Water dripping on to flour will not render it Chametz - provided the drops follow each other in quick succession.
(a)Which kind of Vatika (a type of flour-dish) is permitted, and which kind is forbidden?
(b)What is 'Kimcha d'Avishuna'?
(c)Why may it not be added to a dish to thicken it, seeing as it has already been baked?
(a)A Vatika made with oil and salt is permitted (because fruit-juice without water does not cause flour to rise; whereas a Vatika made with water and salt is forbidden. Note: Regarding adding salt to the Matzah, see Rosh Siman 23.
(b)'Kimcha d'Avishuna' - is flour that has been dried and roasted in an oven.
(c)Even though the flour has already been baked, we are afraid that it did not bake fully, and that it is therefore prone to becoming Chametz when added to the pot.