(a)Why is it not necessary to search a yard for Chametz?
(b)In which kind of area may one use sunlight to search for Chametz - (if, for some reason or other, one was unable to search on the night of the fourteenth)?
(c)Then what is the Gemara referring to when it forbids searching for Chametz by sunlight?
(a)It is unnecessary to search a yard for Chametz - because one can assume that the birds will have eaten it.
(b)One may use sunlight to search an open porch.
(c)When the Gemara forbids searching for Chametz by sunlight - it is referring to the areas of a room which the sun penetrates, but which are not in the direct line of sunlight (since those which are, have the same Din as an open porch).
(a)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Chavakuk "v'Nogah ka'Or Tihye ... Karnayim mi'Yado Lo"?
(b)What Halachic proof do we have that a torch (consisting of two combined flames) is better than a single flame?
(c)Then why is it not Kasher for Bedikas Chametz (four reasons)?
(a)We learn from the Pasuk "v'Nogah ka'Or Tihye ... Karnayim mi'Yado Lo" (which compares Tzadikim before Hash-m to a single flame before a double one) - that a double flame is superior to a single one.
(b)This is also manifest in the Mitzvah of Havdalah, where a double flame is required.
(c)The Mitzvah of Bedikas Chametz however, is different, inasmuch as a double flame interferes with the Bedikah: either because one cannot get into the cracks with it (for fear that it will cause a fire), or because, unlike a smaller one, it tends to shine backwards, instead of forwards, or because, due to the size of the flame, one inevitably holds back, for fear of causing a fire, or because, whereas a small flame remains still, a double one tends to flicker, making searching more difficult.
(a)The Beraisa lists the places that do not require Bedikah (which are all derived from 'Kol Makom' in our Mishnah): Holes in the wall that are either very high or very low; sloping roofs; the tops of the cupboards. What else does the Beraisa include in the list?
(b)Raban Shimon ben Gamliel precludes the space underneath a dividing bed from the list. How do we reconcile this with another Beraisa, where he appears to exempt the very same space from Bedikah?
(a)The Beraisa also includes in the list of places that do not require Bedikah - stables, chicken-runs, and storehouses of straw, wine and oil.
(b)When Raban Shimon ben Gamliel obligates the space underneath a dividing bed to be searched - he is speaking about a tall bed whose space underneath can conveniently be used; whereas in the second Beraisa, where he exempts them from Bedikah, he is referring to low beds with little space underneath.
(a)When does a wine-cellar require Bedikah, and why does an oil-cellar never require Bedikah?
(b)What Din did they give to a beer-storage room in Bavel?
(c)Which kind of fish-storage room requires Bedikah, and which kind does not?
(d)Do the following require Bedikah: a room where one stores ...
1. ... salt or wax?
2. ... wood or dates?
(a)A wine-cellar from which one takes small quantities of wine during the meal requires Bedikah - whereas oil-cellars, due to the fact that one generally knows in advance how much oil will be needed, do not.
(b)In Bavel, they gave a place where beer is stored the same Din as a wine-storage room, from which wine is sometimes taken in small quantities.
(c)A room where small fish are stored requires Bedikah, whereas one where large fish are stored, does not.
(d)A room where one stores ...
1. ... salt or wax - requires Bedikah, and so does one where ...
2. ... wood or dates are stored.
(a)The Beraisa exempts the searcher from stretching his hands deep into the hole in a wall, due to the element of danger involved. Could this be referring to the danger of scorpions?
(b)The Gemara concludes that indeed it is indeed because of scorpions, but that we are speaking about a case when the wall had collapsed. How do we reconcile this with the Mishnah, which exempts one from the need to destroy even known Chametz lying under a pile of rubble?
(a)The Beraisa could not possibly be exempting the searcher from stretching his hands deep into the hole in a wall because of the danger of scorpions - because if there were scorpions in the wall, he would not use it for Chametz (or for anything else for that matter), and any location that is not used for Chametz, is Patur from Bedikas Chametz.
(b)When the Mishnah exempts one from the need to destroy even known Chametz lying under a pile of rubble - it is speaking about Chametz which is covered by rubble that is at least three Tefachim deep, in which case a dog will not dig it up.
(a)'Sheluchei Mitzvah Einan Nizokin'. Would it be correct to say that this does not apply to searching a wall where there are scorpions for Chametz, because, in the process of searching, one may also search for a needle that one dropped there (in which case he will not be fulfilling the Mitzvah)?
(b)Why then, do we contend with it?
(a)It would not be correct to say that 'Sheluchei Mitzvah Einan Nizokin' does not apply to someone who searches for Chametz in a wall where there are scorpions, because, in the process of searching, he may also search for a needle that he dropped there - because even if he were to do so, he would still retain his status of a Sheli'ach Mitzvah. Why is that? Because Chazal have already declared that if someone donates Tzedakah on the condition that his son (who is sick) will live, he has nevertheless fulfilled the Mitzvah of Tzedakah and is called righteous in this matter. This is because when a Jew fulfils a Mitzvah with an ulterior motive, that motive does not detract from the Lishmah, which we know he has in mind, too (i.e. he is performing this action with dual motives). And the same will apply here to someone who searches for Chametz whilst also searching for a needle.
(b)We contend with the danger that he may be stung by a scorpion - not during the search, but after he has concluded it, when he is no longer in the process of fulfilling the Mitzvah.
(a)According to Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak, the Beraisa is referring to the danger of gentiles, and the author is Pelimu. What does this mean? What does Pelimu say?
(b)How does he use the holes in the first instance, (because if he did not, he would not be obligated to search)?
(c)How do we now answer the Kashya from 'Sheluchei Mitzvah'?
(d)How does the Gemara prove this from Shmuel?
(a)According to Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak, the author of the Beraisa, which exempts the owner from searching for Chametz in a hole in a wall because of the danger of gentiles - is Pelimu, who says that gentiles who see a Jew searching in a wall, will accuse him of witchcraft, and there is a strong fear that they will take severe action.
(b)The hole is nevertheless in use - during the day, using sunlight, in a way that does not attract the attention of the gentile, which is hardly possible if he begins searching it with a torch at night.
(c)Chazal absolved the owner from searching despite the principle 'Sheluchei Mitzvah Einan Nizokin' - because this principle does not apply when the danger is stark, such as in our case.
(d)The proof for this lies with Shmuel ha'Navi - who queried Hash-m's command to go and anoint David as King, on the grounds that should King Shaul get wind of this, he would be certain to kill him (in spite of the fact that he was a Sheli'ach Mitzvah).
(a)What did Rav reply when they asked him whether the Talmidim who lived in the valley may go very early in morning and late in the evening to learn? How about the danger of demons?
(b)Were they permitted to return? From which Pasuk do we learn this?
(c)What 'Kal va'Chomer' do we learn from "v'Lo Yachmod Ish es Artzecha"?
(d)Seeing as even on the return journey no harm will befall a Sheli'ach Mitzvah, why do we need the Pasuk "v'Lo Yachmod Ish es Artzecha"?
(a)When they asked Rav about the Talmidim who lived in the valley going to learn early in the morning and late at night (on account of the danger of their being attacked by demons) - he replied that he would gladly take the danger upon his own shoulders, meaning that they had nothing to fear, because the merits of the Mitzvah would protect them.
(b)Rebbi Elazar said that Sheluchei Mitzvah will come to no harm, neither on their outward journey, nor on the return journey. He learns this from the Pasuk in Ki Sisa "u'Fanisa va'Boker, Vehalachta l'Ohalecha" - which teaches us that, every Jew will be able to go Yerushalayim for Yom-Tov, without the need to fear that his gentile neighbors will steal his belongings before his homecoming.
(c)If people who perform this Mitzvah, and whose property is prone to theft, were assured that it is nevertheless safe to travel, how much more so is the Torah's assurance effective when the danger is not so stark.
(d)"v'Lo Yachmod Ish es Artzecha" - teaches us that only someone who owns land is obligated to perform the Mitzvah of Aliyas ha'Regel each Yom-Tov (see Agados Maharsha).
(a)The sweetest fruits in Eretz Yisrael are those of Ginusar (in the area of the Kineret), and the finest hot springs, in Teveria. Why were these distinctions not reserved for Yerushalayim (the city of Hash-m)?
(a)The sweetest fruits in Eretz Yisrael and the finest hot springs - should really have been situated in Yerushalayim - Hash-m's Holy city. The reason that they are not - is so that people should not say that they went to Yerushalayim on Yom-Tov in order to taste its sweet fruits and to bathe in its hot springs.
(a)What does the Gemara mean to ask when it says 'Martef Ma'an Dakar Shmei'?
(b)What is the answer?
(c)According to Rav Yehudah, the two rows that one is obligated to search in the wine-cellar (according to Beis Shamai), are the two complete outer ones? Rebbi Yochanan understands Beis Shamai to mean 'Ke'min Ga'am'. What does that mean?
(d)Rav explains the 'Shtei Shuros ha'Chitzonos she'Hen ha'Elyonos' (of Beis Hillel) to mean the very top outer row and the one below it. How does Shmuel explain it?
(a)When the Gemara asks 'Martef Ma'an Dakar Shmei' - it means to query the need for the Gemara to ask which sort of wine-cellar must be searched, seeing as no-one has as yet, exempted wine-cellars in general from Bedikah.
(b)In fact, answers the Gemara, we need to add a few words to the Mishnah - which will now read 'Kol Makom she'Ein Machnisin Bo Chametz ... v'Otzros Yayin, v'Otzros Shemen Nami Ein Tzarich Bedikah'.
(c)'Ke'min Ga'am' that Rebbi Yochanan describes in Beis Shamai - is like the Greek letter Gama, which is equivalent to a final 'Chaf'.
(d)According to Shmuel, 'Shtei Shuros ha'Chitzonos she'Hen ha'Elyonos' means - the very top outer row and the one behind it.