IT IS GOOD TO EAT FRUGALLY
'Stam' R. Yitzchak (i.e. without mention of his father's name) regarding Halachah is R. Yitzchak ben Acha; Stam R. Yitzchak regarding Agadata (non-Halachic teachings) is R. Yitzchak ben Pinchas;
A way to remember this - "Shema'uni Achai v'Ami" (Divrei ha'Yamim 1:28:2; R. Yitzchak ben Acha taught Shemata (Halachah)).
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): Eat Batzel (onions), and you will sit b'Tzel (in the shade) of your house (eat frugally, and you will not need to sell your house);
Do not eat geese and chickens, for [they are expensive and] then you will always crave them.
Decrease your eating and drinking, and spend more on your house.
(Ula): One who eats Alyah (the fat tail, which is expensive) hides himself [from creditors] in the Aliyah (attic); one who eats Kakuli (vegetables, which are cheap) can sit on the Kiklei (dumps) of the city (where everyone goes - he need not hide).
DO WE BLESS FIRST ON THE WINE OR ON THE DAY?
(Mishnah - Beis Shamai): They mix the first cup of wine - he blesses [in Kidush] Kedushas ha'Yom, and then Borei Peri ha'Gafen;
Beis Hillel says, he blesses on the wine, and then on the day.
(Gemara - Beraisa): The following is one of the things Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel argue about in a meal:
Beis Shamai say, [in Kidush] first we bless on the day, then on the wine, because the day (Shabbos or Yom Tov) is the reason we have wine; also, the day came before the wine.
Beis Hillel say, we bless on the wine first, because we say Kidush only because we have wine (indeed, Kidush can be made on bread - in that case, the bread is in place of wine, one blesses on it first);
Also - the Berachah on wine is more Tadir [frequent] than the Berachah on the day - Tadir comes first.
The Halachah follows Beis Hillel.
Question: Why did Beis Hillel need to give a second reason?
Answer: One might have thought that since Beis Shamai give two reasons, the Halachah follows them - therefore, Beis Hillel give a second reason.
Question: Why does the Beraisa need to say that the Halachah follows Beis Hillel - this is obvious, a Bas Kol announced that the Halachah [always] follows Beis Hillel!
Answer #1: This Beraisa was taught before the Bas Kol.
Answer #2: This Beraisa is like R. Yehoshua, who says that we do not heed a Bas Kol.
EATING A VEGETABLE AND MAROR
(Mishnah): [After Kidush, we dip and eat a vegetable, to arouse children to ask why tonight is different - this step of the Seder is called Karpas;] they bring to him [vegetables. If the only one available is Chazeres (Romaine lettuce)] he dips Chazeres [and eats it now] before eating Matzah [after which he eats Chazeres for the Mitzvah of Maror].
[After Karpas,] Matzah, Chazeres, Charoses and two cooked foods are brought in front of him, even though Charoses is not a Mitzvah (this will be explained);
R. Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok says, it is a Mitzvah.
In [the time of] the Mikdash, they would bring the meat of the Pesach.
(Gemara - Reish Lakish): Our Mishnah teaches that Mitzvos require intent:
Since the first time he ate Chazeres it was not the time for the Mitzvah of Maror, and he blessed Borei Peri ha'Adamah as usual for a vegetable, perhaps he did not intend for the Mitzvah of Maror - therefore, he must eat Maror again afterwards.
If Mitzvos did not require intent, there would be no need to dip [and eat] it again, he was already Yotzei the first time!
Objection #1: Perhaps Mitzvos do not require intent - he must dip again to arouse the children!
Question: If the Mishnah does not teach that Mitzvos require intent, it should discuss eating a different vegetable [before the Matzah]!
Answer: Had it discussed another vegetable, we would have thought that two dippings are done only when one has another vegetable - therefore the Mishnah teaches that even if he has only Chazeres, he dips twice.
Objection #2 (Beraisa): If one ate [Maror of] Demai, he was Yotzei [since he could Mafkir his property and become poor, and then it would be permitted to him];
If he ate without intent or half at a time, he was Yotzei, as long as he did not delay between one eating and another (Mishnah Berurah 475:42 - really, it means from the beginning to the end) the time to eat a half-loaf (opinions of this time vary between two and nine minutes).
Answer: Tana'im argue about this:
(Beraisa - R. Yosi): Even though he dipped [and ate] Chazeres [for Karpas], it is a Mitzvah to bring Chazeres, Charoses and two cooked foods.
Question: Perhaps R. Yosi holds that Mitzvos do not require intent - he dips again to arouse the children, like we said above!
Answer: If so, he would not call bringing Chazeres a Mitzvah.
Question: What are the two cooked foods?
Answer #1 (Rav Huna): Even beets and rice may be used [all the more so, meat dishes].
Rava strove to use beets and rice, because [he wanted to show that the Halachah follows Rav Huna, and] Rav Huna said these.
Inference (Rav Ashi): This shows that no one is concerned for the opinion of R. Yochanan ben Nuri:
(Beraisa - R. Yochanan ben Nuri): Rice is a grain; [if it became Chametz] one is Chayav Kares for eating it on Pesach; one may be Yotzei with rice Matzah.
Answer #2 (Chizkiyah): Even fish with an egg on top suffices (it counts like two cooked foods).
Answer #3 (Rav Yosef): Two kinds of meat (R. Chananel - roasted and cooked) are required to commemorate the Korban Pesach and Chagigah [of the 14th].
Answer #4 (Ravina): Even meat and the gravy in which it was cooked suffice.
The following is obvious - if one has a vegetable (in addition to Maror), he blesses Borei Peri ha'Adamah on the vegetable [at Karpas], and 'Al Achilas Maror' on the Maror;
Question: If one has only lettuce [or another species of Maror], how does he bless the two times he eats it?
Answer #1 (Rav Huna): The first time he blesses Borei Peri ha'Adamah; the second time he blesses Al Achilas Maror.