Rav (to Rav Asi): Do not live in a city in which horses and dogs are not heard (they are a deterrent - horses enable people to catch thieves);
Do not live in a city whose mayor is a doctor [or Chacham - he is too busy curing or learning to tend to needs of the city];
Do not marry two women [lest they plot against you] - if you married two, marry a third (if two plot against you, the third will tell you);
Rav (to Rav Kahana): It is better to engage in a carcass than in conversation;
Flay a carcass in the market for wages; do not say 'I am the great Kahana, this is a disgrace for me!'
Even when you go on a [short trip, e.g.] to the roof, take food with you, even if 100 gourds sell for a Zuz in the market (food is cheap).
Rav (to his son Chiya): Do not drink potions [if there is an alternative medicine; alternatively, do not drink them regularly - they are expensive, and they help one ailment but are harmful in other ways);
Do not take a big step (it reduces one's eyesight - alternatively, do not jump over a stream); do not extract an [aching] tooth (it will eventually heal);
Do not provoke a snake or a Nochri.
(Beraisa): There are three that one must [be extra careful] not to provoke - a young Nochri, a young snake and a young Talmid.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: Soon they will mature [and take vengeance].
Rav (to his son Eibo): I toiled to teach Torah to you - I did not succeed; now I will teach you worldly matters:
When you foot is still in the sand (you just got off the boat), sell your merchandise [so you can quickly go on your next business venture];
You can regret having sold anything [if it will later rise in price], except for wine (perhaps it would have soured);
Open your wallet [to take the money] before opening your sack [to give the merchandise];
It is better to make a small profit nearby than a large profit far away;
If you have dates, run to the beer brewer [otherwise you will eat them and lose them].
Question: For how many dates does this apply?
Answer: For [up to] three Sa'im (the volume of 432 eggs).
(Rav Papa or Rav Chisda): Had I not brewed beer, I would not have become wealthy.
Question: Why is a brewer called 'Sudna'?
Answer (Rav Chisda): It is a Sod Na'eh (a nice secret) and [gives one the means to do] Chesed (to give to drink; alternatively, with the earnings from it).
(Rav Papa): Anything about which one must write a document (e.g. a loan) is burdensome to collect;
If something is given on credit, it is doubtful if it will be paid for; even if it is paid, it will be in bad coins (i.e. a bit at a time, which is inconvenient).
R. Yochanan (citing people of Yerushalayim): When you go to war [of Reshus - Ya'avetz], do not go at the front, rather, at the back, in order that you will be the first to return [if you must flee; Ein Eliyahu - do not think it is better to go at the front to get more spoils];
Make Shabbos like Chol [if you must], but do not take Tzedakah;
Have financial dealings with someone who is prospering.
R. Yehoshua ben Levi (citing People of Yerushalayim): Do not frequent the roof (you are visible there), on account of the episode (David took Bas Sheva because he saw her bathing on the roof);
If your daughter became a Bogeres [and is still single, marry her off immediately, even if you must] free your slave and marry her to him;
Be careful lest your wife get too close to your first son-in-law.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): We are concerned for adultery.
Answer #2 (Rav Kahana): Perhaps she will freely give money to him.
We are concerned for both of these.
WHO IS BELOVED AND DESPISED?
(R. Yochanan): Three inherit the world to come - one who lives in Eretz Yisrael, one who raises his children to learn Torah, and one who makes Havdalah on wine on Motza'ei Shabbos.
Question: Why does making Havdalah on wine merit such a great reward?
Answer: The case is, he has limited wine, and he does not drink all of the wine of Kidush in order to save it for Havdalah.
(R. Yochanan): Hash-m announces about [the greatness] of three people every day - a bachelor who dwells in a big city and does not sin, a poor person who returns a lost object, and a rich person who tithes covertly (he does not seek praise).
Rav Safra was a bachelor living in a big city. Someone recited this teaching in front of Rava and Rav Safra - the latter started beaming.
Rava: It does not refer to you, rather, to people like R. Chanina and R. Oshaya, who were shoemakers in Eretz Yisrael in a market of harlots; they made shoes for the harlots. The harlots looked at them, but they did not lift their eyes to look at the harlots;
People used to swear 'in the life of these holy Rabanan of Eretz Yisrael'.
Hash-m loves three people - one who does not get angry, one who does not get drunk, and one who does not bear resentment.
Hash-m hates three people - one who speaks insincerely, one who knows testimony but does not testify, and a lone witness who testifies about immorality:
A case occurred, Tuvya sinned and Zigud testified about him in front of Rav Papa - Rav Papa lashed Zigud.
Zigud: Tuvya sinned - why did you lash me?
Rav Papa: It says "Lo Yakum Ed Echad b'Ish" - you testified alone (you are not believed -) the sole result of your testimony is to besmirch his reputation!
(Rav Shmuel bar Yitzchak): One may hate a person [for transgressing Ervah]:
Question: "Ki Sir'eh Chamor Sona'acha Rovetz..." - whom do you hate?
Suggestion: It is a Nochri.
Rejection (Beraisa): The verse refers to a Yisrael, not a Nochri.
Answer: It refers to a Yisrael.
Question: One may not hate a [proper] Yisrael - "V'Ohavta l'Re'echa Kamocha!"
Answer #1: The case is, witnesses testified that he transgressed.
Rejection: If so, he would not be called "Sona'acha" - everyone hates him!
Answer #2: The case is, you alone saw him transgress Ervah.
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): It is a Mitzvah to hate such a person - "Yir'as Hash-m Senos Ra."
(Rav Acha brei d'Rava): Should one tell the transgressor's Rebbi, so he will hate him?
Answer (Rav Ashi): One should do so only if the Rebbi believes you as if you were two witnesses.
(Beraisa): Three people lead disturbed lives - people who are [overly] compassionate (they are troubled by everyone's troubles), irritable people, and finicky people.
Rav Yosef: All of these apply to me.
(Beraisa): There are three groups, that each member hates others in his group - dogs, roosters and Chaverim (a nation that came from or lived among Persians);
Some say, even harlots.
Some say, even Chachamim in Bavel (they bitterly attack (try to refute) each other in Halachah - Sanhedrin 24A. Ben Yehoyada - sometimes, the Neshamos of two Chachamim have the same source and they do not realize this - this causes hostility between them; in Eretz Yisrael, Chachamim have a Ru'ach ha'Kodesh to recognize this, and then they love each other.)
(Beraisa): There are three groups, such that each loves others in his group - converts, slaves, and ravens.
Four people cannot be tolerated (even they cannot bear themselves after they repent) - a haughty poor person, a rich person who denies [that he owes money], an old person who is Mezaneh (even though his desire waned - Shabbos 152A), and a leader who aggrandizes himself over the community for naught (he does not help them when they are in need).
Some say, also one who divorces his wife and remarries her twice.
The first Tana did not include this case - sometimes she has a large Kesuvah [and he cannot pay it] or he has children from her [and he remarries her because he cannot raise them himself].
[Slaves act as if] Kena'an commanded his children five things - love each other, love theft, love Zenus, hate your masters, and do not say the truth. (Even though Benei Yisrael were commanded to kill the Kena'aniyim, children of Kena'aniyos fathered by other nations could be bought for slaves - Vayikra 25:45.)
Six things were taught about a horse - it loves to mate, it loves war, it is haughty, it hates sleep, it eats much and excretes little;
Some say, it also seeks to kill its master in war.
Seven are [like] excommunicated to Shomayim - a Yisrael without a wife, one with a wife but without children [and he does not divorce her so he can marry someone else], one with children but he does not raise them to learn Torah, one without Tefilin on his head and arm, one without Tzitzis on his garment, one without a Mezuzah on his doorway, and one who does not wear shoes;
Some say, also one who does not eat at a meal celebrating a Mitzvah [such as circumcision].
TEACHINGS OF RABAH BAR BAR CHANAH
(Rabah bar bar Chanah citing R. Yosi Ish Hutzal) Question: What is the source to forbid asking astrologers? (See Rashbam.)
Answer: "Tamim Tihyeh Im Hash-m Elokecha" (rely simply on Hash-m).
Question: If Reuven is greater than Shimon, even in only one matter, what is the source requiring Shimon to honor him?
Answer: "Kol Kabel Di Ru'ach Yatira Be u'Malka Asis Lahakamose Al Kol Malchusa" (because Daniel was wiser, he was elevated over all the king's ministers).
Question: (Dam Tohar (postnatal blood - see note in Appendix for Daf 3A) is Tahor.) After the days of Dam Tohar end [we are concerned lest she will still think that her blood Tahor], how long must she wait before having relations [to remind her that if she sees blood, it makes her Nidah]?
Answer (Rav): She must wait one night (Rashbam).
(Beraisa): The following are the same person - Yosef Ish Hutzal, Yosef ha'Bavli, Isi ben Gur Aryeh, Isi ben Yehudah, Isi ben Gamliel, and Isi ben Mehalalel; his real name was Isi ben Akavya.
(Beraisa): The following are the same - R. Yitzchak ben Tavla, R. Yitzchak ben Chakla, and R. Yitzchak ben Ila'a.