KEEPING CHILDREN HAPPY AND AWAKE ON PESACH
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): We Chotef the Matzah (eat it quickly), lest children fall asleep [before the Seder ends; alternatively - we lift the tray with the Matzah, to arouse them to ask questions, or remove the Matzah lest they become sated and fall asleep].
(Beraisa): R. Akiva never said that it is time to leave the Beis Medrash except for Erev Pesach and Erev Yom Kipur:
On Erev Pesach he left to ensure that his children will be awake at night (he forced his children to sleep during the day);
On Erev Yom Kipur he went to feed his children.
(Beraisa): One must gladden his children on the festivals - "V'Somachta b'Chagecha";
One gladdens them by giving them wine.
R. Yehudah says, one gives to everyone what will gladden him - wine gladdens men.
Question: What gladdens women?
Answer (Rav Yosef - Beraisa): Women in Bavel delight in colored clothing; in Eretz Yisrael they delight in ironed linen garments.
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah ben Beseira): When the Mikdash stands, Simchah is only with meat [of Shelamim] - "V'Zovachta Shelamim v'Ochalta Sham v'Somachta";
Nowadays Simchah is only with wine - "V'Yayin Yesamach Levav Enosh."
THE SIZE OF A REVI'IS
(R. Yitzchak): There was a measure for selling Muryas (fish oil) in Tzipori - it was like a Lug of the Mikdash, it was used to measure a Revi'is (quarter Lug, for the cups of wine on Pesach).
(R. Yochanan): There used to be a measure called 'Tuman' in Teverya, it exceeded the current Tuman by a Revi'is - they used it to measure a Revi'is for Pesach [by pouring its contents into the smaller Tuman and measuring what remains].
(Rav Chisda): The Revi'is mid'Oraisa [to Mechayev a Nazir for drinking wine, for Tum'as Ohel of blood, and the oil for certain Menachos] is the volume of a box two thumbs by two thumbs by two and seven tenths thumbs:
(Beraisa): "V'Rochatz ba'Mayim Es Kol Besaro" - nothing may separate between the water and the flesh of one who immerses;
"Ba'Mayim" - in a Mikveh;
"Es Kol Besaro" - the Mikveh must contain the entire body [of an average size person].
Question: How big is this?
Answer: It is [the volume of] an Amah by an Amah and three Amos tall (it need not have this shape) - Chachamim calculated, this is 40 Sa'im. (In note 57 in Appendix we show how Rav Chisda's teaching follows from this.)
(Rav Ashi): The Shulchan in the Mikdash [which was two Amos long, an Amah wide and one and a half Amos tall] could be dissembled - if it was solid, it could not fit into the Mikveh [in the Azarah of the above dimensions, which is] exactly an Amah wide to be immersed! (Tosfos - we do not ask from the height, which was even more than an Amah, for it was known that the legs were removable. See note 58 in Appendix.)
Objection: Perhaps it was immersed in the Yam Shel Shlomo [which was very wide]!
(R. Chiya - Beraisa): The Yam Shel Shlomo held 150 times [40 Sa'im,] the [minimum] volume of a Mikveh.
ZUGOS DOES NOT APPLY TO THE FOUR CUPS
(Mishnah): They should not give to him less than four cups of wine.
Question: Why did Chachamim enact something that could be dangerous?!
(Beraisa): One should not eat two things [or any even number], drink two [cups], clean himself twice [in the bathroom], or have relations twice. (These cause vulnerability to a certain evil spirit; nowadays we are not concerned for it.)
Answer #1 (Rav Nachman): Pesach night is "Leil Shimurim" - it is Shamur (guarded) from Mazikim in all generations.
Answer #2 (Rava): The cup of Berachah (of Birkas ha'Mazon) joins for the good, not for harm.
Answer #3 (Ravina): Chachamim enacted four cups in the way of freedom - each is a Mitzvah by itself (we do not consider them together).