PESACHIM 109 (3 Cheshvan) - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Shlomo Mordechai ben Yakov Sobol, in honor of his son Aaron.

[109a - 31 lines; 109b - 16 lines]

1)[line 1]קליותKELAYOS- roasted kernels of grain (from wheat that is not Chadash; see Background to Pesachim 55:36)

2)[line 3]בערב פסחB'EREV HA'PESACH- see below, entry #4

3a)[line 5]חוטפין (מצות) [מצה] בלילי פסחים בשביל תינוקות כדי שישאלוCHOTFIN (MATZOS) [MATZAH] B'LEILEI PESACHIM BISHVIL TINOKOS KEDEI SHE'YISH'ALU- we should raise the [Seder plate which contains the] Matzah on Seder night so that [those] children [present] will [take note and] ask [about it] (first Girsa in RASHI)

b) חוטפין מצותCHOTFIN MITZVOS...- we should raise the [Seder plate which contains the] Mitzvos [of Matzah, Maror, the shank bone, and the boiled egg] on Seder night so that [those] children [present] will [take note and] ask [about them] (Girsa according to the third explanation in RASHBAM)

c) חוטפין מצות בלילי פסחים בשביל תינוקות שלא ישנוCHOTFIN MATZAH B'LEILEI PESACHIM BISHVIL TINOKOS SHE'LO YISHNU- we should eat the Matzah quickly on Seder night so that those children present do not fall asleep [during the recitation of the Hagadah] (second GIRSA in Rashi, which he says is the proper one)

d) חוטפין מצות בלילי פסחים בשביל תינוקות שלא ישנוCHOTFIN MATZAH B'LEILEI PESACHIM BISHVIL TINOKOS SHE'LO YISHNU- we should steal the Matzah away from those children present on Seder night [before they have a chance to eat it and] become drowsy

4)[line 8]בערבי פסחים בשביל תינוקות כדי שלא ישנוB'ARVEI PESACHIM BISHVIL TINOKOS KEDEI SHE'LO YISHNU- (a) on [the day of] Erev Pesach so that the children would [take naps and therefore] be awake for the Seder (RASHI, RASHBAM first explanation); (b) [when the learning of] Erev Pesach [stretched into the night] so that the children would not fall asleep at the Seder (Rashbam second explanation); (c) TOSFOS DH Chutz agrees with second explanation of the Rashbam, but changes the Girsa to LEILEI PESACHIM...

5)[line 15]בגדי צבעוניןBIGDEI TZIV'ONIN- colorful garments

6)[line 16]בגדי פשתן מגוהציןBIGDEI PISHTAN MEGUHATZIN- pressed linen garments

7)[line 21]קסתא דמוריסאKISTA D'MORISA- the vessel used when selling Muryis (a brine containing fish-hash and sometimes wine). The capacity of this measure was the Greek sextarius or xestes, a unit nearly equal to a pint.

8)[line 22]היא הות כמין לוגא דמקדשאHI HAVAS K'MIN LOGA D'MAKDESHA- was equal to the Log measurement used [for Korbanos] in the Beis ha'Mikdash

9)[line 23]בה משערין רביעית של פסחVAH MESHA'ARIN REVI'IS SHEL PESACH- they used it to determine the Revi'is [necessary for the four cups consumed during the Seder] of Pesach [by splitting its contents into four equal parts]

10)[line 24]תמנייתא קדמייתאTAMNAISA KADMAISA- the old Tamnaisa (a measure which was 1/8 of a Kav)

11)[line 25]הות יתירה על דא ריבעאHAVAS YESEIRAH AL DA RIV'A- exceeded the present-day Tamnaisa by one Revi'is (a quarter of a Log)

12)[line 25]ובה משערין רביעית של פסחU'VAH MESHA'ARIN REVI'IS SHEL PESACH- and they used it to determine the Revi'is [necessary for the four cups consumed during the Seder] of Pesach [by filling the new Tamnaisa from the old one and measuring what remained]

13)[line 27]אצבעיםETZBA'AYIM - the width of two fingers (MEASURES OF LENGTH AND DISTANCE)

(a)The Talmud uses the following standards for measuring distance:

1.3 Parsa'os = 24,000 Amos = 90 Ris = 12 Mil

2.1 Parsah = 8,000 Amos = 30 Ris = 4 Mil

3.1 Mil = 2,000 Amos = 7.5 Ris

4.1 Ris (or Rus) = 266.66 Amos

5.1 Amah = 2 Zerasos = 6 Tefachim

6.1 Zeres = 3 Tefachim

7.1 Tefach = 4 Etzba'os

(b)In modern-day units, the Etzba is approximately 2 cm (.8 in.) or 2.4 cm (.94 in.), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions (see Insights).

14)[line 27]ברוםB'RUM- with a height of

15)[line 30]"במים" במי מקוה"BA'MAYIM," B'MEI MIKVAH- Since the word in this verse is "b'Mayim" and not "ba'Mayim," we deduce that the Torah is specifically referring to naturally gathered water as opposed to drawn water (RASHBAM). Also, since the Torah does not describe this water as "Mayim Chayim" (like the water in which a Zav must immerse; Vayikra 15:13), we see that this water need not be flowing (RASHI Chagigah 11a).


16)[line 1]ושיערו חכמים שיעור מי מקוה ארבעים סאה ... …V'SHI'ARU CHACHAMIM SHI'UR MEI MIKVAH ARBA'IM SE'AH- This Beraisa establishes the relationship between volume and linear measurements. Using this ratio, a box measuring two fingers wide by two fingers wide which is two and 7/10 fingers high contains one Revi'is (see RASHI DH Amah or RASHBAM DH d'Hainu for a detailed calculation).

17)[line 2]ארבעים סאהARBA'IM SE'AH (DRY MEASURES)

(a)The following is a list of measures of volume used in the Mishnah and Gemara:

1.1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in

2.1 Lesech = 15 Se'in

3.1 Eifah = 3 Se'in

4.1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin

5.1 Tarkav (= Trei v'Kav, or 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin

6.1 Kav = 4 Lugin

7.1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim

8.1 Beitzah = 2 or 3 k'Zeisim, according to the varying opinions

(b)In modern-day measures, the k'Zayis is approximately 0.025, 0.0288 or 0.05 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. Thus, 40 Se'ah = 288, 332 or 576 liters.

18)[line 4]של פרקים הוהSHEL PERAKIM HAVAH- was made up of separable parts

19)[line 4]הדוקי הוה מיהדקHADUKEI HAVAH MIHADAK- it (the Shulchan) was made up of firmly attached pieces

20)[line 5]אמתא באמתא היכי מטבליה?AMSA B'AMSA HEICHI MITBELEI?- how can [the Shulchan, which was] an Amah [wide,] be immersed in [the Mikvah in the Beis ha'Mikdash, which was also] an Amah [wide]?

21)[line 7]ים שעשה שלמהYAM SHE'ASAH SHLOMO- the pool built by King Shlomo in his palace (Melachim I 7:23)

22)[line 10]תריTREI- double; in pairs (anything done in pairs - called "Zugos" - causes one to be vulnerable to an attack by Sheidim, demons)

23)[line 11]לא יקנחLO YEKANE'ACH- one should not wipe oneself

24)[line 11]לא יעשה צרכיוLO YA'ASEH TZERACHAV- one should not have marital relations

25)[line 14]כוס של ברכה מצטרף לטובה, ואינו מצטרף לרעהKOS SHEL BERACHAH MITZTAREF L'TOVAH, V'EINO MITZTAREF L'RA'AH- the cup upon which Birkas ha'Mazon is recited is considered the third cup so that there is an odd number of drinks, but it does not count as the third cup toward the completion a pair together with the fourth cup