CHAGIGAH OF THE 14TH
(Rav Ashi): This teaches that Chagigah of the 14th is not obligatory - if it was obligatory, it would be brought even when Pesach is brought on Shabbos, b'Tum'ah, or is large [enough for the Chaburah]!
Question: Why is it brought?
Answer (Beraisa): The Chagigah brought with Pesach is eaten first, so one will be satiated [with Kodshim] when he eats Pesach. (Mechilta Bo (6) learns from "Al Matzos u'Merorim Yochluhu" that Pesach is eaten when satiated. Tosfos (citing Yerushalmi) - the Tana'im who say that it is Reshus hold that Chachamim enacted it, lest people eat Pesach ravenously and come to break bones. Rashi - one enjoys it more if he is already sated; Rashi (86A) - all Korbanos are eaten l'Moshchah (in grandeur, when satiated).)
(Mishnah): It may be eaten for two days and one night.
Our Mishnah is unlike Ben Teima:
(Beraisa - Ben Teima): The Chagigah that comes with Pesach is like Pesach, it may be eaten for only one day and a night. (Tzelach - sometimes the Gemara says 'one day and a night' even though it is really only at night, e.g. 94A.)
Chagigah of the 15th ('Stam' Chagigah, a Shelamim every male must bring on every festival) may be eaten for two days and a night.
One may fulfill the Mitzvah of Simchah (eating Shelamim on the festivals) through the Chagigah of the 14th, but not the Mitzvah of [Stam] Chagigah [which must be from Chulin, not from something Hukdash for another obligation].
Question: What is his reason [for the first law]?
Answer: It is like Rav taught his son Chiya:
(Rav): "V'Lo Yalin la'Boker Zevach Chag ha'Pesach" - Zevach Chag refers to Chagigah [of the 14th], and ha'Pesach is the Pesach, and the Torah forbids leaving either of them until morning!
DOES BEN TEIMA TOTALLY EQUATE CHAGIGAH TO PESACH?
Question: Does Ben Teima require Chagigah [of the 14th] to be eaten roasted?
Perhaps it is equated to Pesach only regarding Linah - or, perhaps it is equated also regarding roasting!
Answer (Mishnah): 'On this night, we eat [meat] only roasted.'
(Rav Chisda): This is like Ben Teima.
This shows that Ben Teima also requires Chagigah to be roasted.
Questions: Does Ben Teima allow using for Chagigah cattle, females, and animals more than a year old [which are invalid for Pesach]?
Perhaps it is equated to Pesach only regarding how it is eaten - or, perhaps it is equated in all ways?
Answer (Beraisa): Chagigah of the 14th is like Pesach - it must be a male yearling sheep or goat, and it is eaten roasted, until morning, and only by its owners (they need not be the same owners as of the Pesach - Me'iri);
It may not be a bull, a female, or more than a year old.
This is like Ben Teima, who forbids eating it after morning - this shows that he equates it in every way.
Questions: Does Ben Teima forbid breaking a bone of the Chagigah?
Even though it is equated to Pesach, it says [regarding Pesach (Shmos 12:46) "V'Etzem Lo Sishberu] Vo" - in it, not in Chagigah;
Or, perhaps Vo only excludes a Pasul Pesach?
Answer (Mishnah): If a [slaughter] knife was found on the 14th [in Yerushalayim] one may slaughter with it immediately (Yerushalayim is full of people at this time, surely the knife was lost today);
If it was found on the 13th [we are concerned that the owner was planning to finish its Taharah from Tum'as Mes today, so] the finder must sprinkle Mei Chatas 'again' on it and immerse it [in order to use it tomorrow];
If a chopper (used to break bones) was found on either day, one must sprinkle 'again' and immerse it.
Question: Who is the Tana of the Mishnah?
Answer #1: It is Chachamim.
Rejection: The reason to allow the knife immediately [on the 14th] is because we assume that the owner immersed it (completed its Taharah) yesterday, in order to slaughter Pesach today (he did not plan to immerse it today, for then it would be unfit for Kodshim until evening);
Likewise, we may assume that a chopper was immersed yesterday, in order to cut up a Chagigah [today]!
Answer #2: Rather, it is Ben Teima, and he forbids breaking bones of Chagigah (surely the chopper is for Shelamim which will be offered during Pesach - perhaps he planned to Metaher it on the 14th)!
Objection #1 (and Defense of Answer #1): Really, it is Chachamim - the case is, Erev Pesach is on Shabbos [so Chagigah of the 14th is not brought].
Rejection (Seifa): If the 14th is on Shabbos [when one may not immerse Kelim], or if it was found on the 15th one may slaughter with it immediately;
If a chopper was found tied to a knife, it has the same status as the knife.
This implies that the Reisha does not discuss when Erev Pesach is on Shabbos!
Objection #2: Rather, the case is, a large Pesach was brought [so Chagigah is not brought with it].
Rejection: The owner did not know [if more people will join the Chaburah and Chagigah will be brought]!
Objection #3: Rather, Pesach was brought b'Tum'ah (Chagigah is not brought with it).
Question: The owner did not know in advance [that it would be brought b'Tum'ah - we should assume that he was Metaher the chopper on the 13th, like usual]!
Answer #1: The case is, the Nasi died (the owner knew that everyone would become Tamei and Pesach would be brought b'Tumah).
Objection: When did the Nasi die?
If he died on the 13th, the owner [knew that he would become Tamei, surely he] would not have immersed a knife!
If he died on the 14th, [the owner did not know this on the 13th, according to Chachamim] he would have immersed his knife and chopper!
Answer #2: Rather, the Nasi was Goses (very sick and probably going to die):
[We assume that] the owner immersed his knife, for this involves a single Safek [if the Nasi will live, the knife must be Tahor for Pesach];
He did not immerse his chopper, for the need to do so depends on two doubts (the Nasi will live, and the Chaburah will be big and bring Chagigah. We have defended Objection #3, we did not settle whether or not Ben Teima forbids breaking bones of Chagigah.)
IS CHAGIGAH DOCHEH SHABBOS?
(Beraisa): Yehudah ben Dursai separated [from Chachamim, because they said that Chagigah of the 14th (Rashi; Tosfos - 15th) is not Docheh Shabbos]; he and his son Dursai went to the south [to exempt himself from bringing Pesach].
Yehudah: If Eliyahu will ask Yisrael why they didn't bring Chagigah on Shabbos, how will they answer?! I cannot understand how the two biggest Chachamim, Shemayah and Avtalyon, did not teach them that Chagigah is Docheh Shabbos!
(Rav): Yehudah learns from "V'Zovachta Pesach...Tzon u'Vakar":
Question: Pesach is only from Tzon!
Answer: Tzon alludes to the Pesach; u'Vakar alludes to Chagigah - and it says "V'Zovachta Pesach" [to equate Chagigah to Pesach, i.e. it is Docheh Shabbos]!
Rav Ashi: Must we expound to justify dissidents?!
(Rav Ashi): Rather, the verse teaches like Rav Nachman:
(Rav Nachman) Question: What is the source that Mosar Pesach (a Pesach that was lost, and found after the owner offered a replacement; alternatively, money separated for Pesach that remains after a [cheaper] Pesach was bought) is offered like Shelamim?
Answer: "V'Zovachta Pesach...Tzon u'Vakar":
Question: Pesach is only from Tzon!
Answer: Rather, it teaches that Mosar Pesach is offered like something that can be from Tzon or cattle (i.e. Shelamim).
Question: Why do Chachamim say that is not Docheh Shabbos - it is a Korban Tzibur!
Answer (R. Ila'a) Question: "V'Chagosem Oso Chag la'Shem Shiv'as Yomim ba'Shanah" - there are eight days to bring Chagigah [of Sukos, including Shemini Atzeres]!
Answer: This teaches that Chagigah is not Docheh Shabbos (therefore there are only seven days to bring it).
Question (Ravin): Sometimes there are only six days, e.g. when Sukos is on Shabbos [for also Shemini Atzeres will be on Shabbos]!
Answer (Abaye): This is not difficult - there are usually seven days, but there are never eight days!
(Ula): If one slaughtered a Shelamim before Yom Tov, he does not fulfill his obligation of Simchah or Chagigah through it:
He is not Yotzei Simchah, for slaughter [of Shalmei Simchah] must be at a time of Simchah [during the festival] - "V'Zovachta...v'Somachta";
He is not Yotzei Chagigah, for it is obligatory and hence must be brought from Chulin. (Tosfos - just like it must be Hukdash l'Shem Chagigah, it must be slaughtered at the time of Chagigah; R. Chananel - it was not Hukdash l'Shem Chagigah - one would not be Yotzei even if he slaughtered it on the 15th.)