WHAT OVERRIDES SHABBOS FOR THE SAKE OF PESACH? (cont.)
R. Akiva: Perhaps you should learn oppositely! Haza'ah is only Shevus, yet it is not Docheh Shabbos - slaughtering is a Melachah, all the more so it is not Docheh!
R. Eliezer: You are uprooting the verse "B'Mo'ado" - whether Erev Pesach is on a weekday or Shabbos!
R. Akiva: ["B'Mo'ado" refers to the fixed time for slaughter -] it does not say "B'Mo'ado" regarding these [Shevusim - they could have been done before Shabbos]!
R. Akiva: The general rule is, any Melachah which could be done before Shabbos is not Docheh; slaughter could not be done before Shabbos, therefore it is Docheh.
(Gemara - Beraisa): Benei Beseira (one of them was the Nasi, the 'king' of the Chachamim) forgot this Halachah [that slaughter is Docheh Shabbos];
Once, Erev Pesach occurred on Shabbos, and they did not remember whether or not Korban Pesach is Docheh. People suggested that Hillel, who had come from Bavel, would know - he had served two leaders of the generation, Shemayah and Avtalyon.
Hillel: Is Pesach the only Korban that is Docheh Shabbos?! There are more than 200 [Korbanos like] Pesachim that are Docheh every year (Temidim and Musafim of Shabbos)!
Question (Benei Beseira): What is the source of this?
Answer #1 (Hillel): It says "B'Mo'ado" regarding Pesach, just like regarding the Tamid - just like the Tamid is Docheh Shabbos, also Pesach!
Answer #2 (Hillel): A Kal va'Chomer teaches this - there is no Kares for [not bringing] the Tamid, nevertheless it is Docheh Shabbos - there is Kares for [not bringing] Pesach, all the more so it is Docheh!
They appointed Hillel to be Nasi.
Hillel expounded laws of Pesach the entire day; he began to provoke [the Chachamim] verbally:
What caused that I came from Bavel to become your Nasi? Your laziness - you did not serve the two greatest Chachamim of the generation, Shemayah and Avtalyon!
Question: If someone forgot to bring a knife [to the Azarah] before Shabbos, how may he bring it on Shabbos?
Hillel: I heard this and forgot it (this was his punishment for the tinge of haughtiness he showed when rebuking them) - leave it to Yisrael to find a solution - if they are not Nevi'im, they are Benei Nevi'im (people training to be prophets).
On Erev Pesach, everyone inserted the knife in the wool if his Korban was a lamb, or in the horns if it was a goat (everyone who had forgotten to bring it beforehand did so; alternatively, they planned to bring them this way - they did so even when Erev Pesach was a Yom Chol - Tosfos Rid);
Hillel remembered that he learned this from Shemayah and Avtalyon.
THE SOURCE THAT PESACH OVERRIDES SHABBOS
(Beraisa): It says "B'Mo'ado" regarding Pesach, just like regarding the Tamid - just like the Tamid is Docheh Shabbos, also Pesach.
Question: What is the source that the Tamid is Docheh Shabbos?
Suggestion: "B'Mo'ado" connotes even on Shabbos.
Rejection: If so, this would directly teach about Pesach, regarding which it also says "B'Mo'ado" - but we needed to learn Pesach from Tamid! We must say that "B'Mo'ado" does not connote 'even on Shabbos' regarding Pesach or Tamid.
Answer: It says "Olas Shabas b'Shabato Al Olas ha'Tamid" (Musaf of Shabbos is offered in addition to the Tamid) - this shows that the Tamid is offered on Shabbos.
(Beraisa): A Kal va'Chomer also teaches this - there is no Kares for the Tamid, nevertheless it is Docheh - there is Kares for Pesach, all the more so it is Docheh!
Question: This can be challenged - the Tamid is Tadir (brought more regularly) and is totally offered on the Mizbe'ach - these do not apply to Pesach!
Answer: First, Hillel answered with this Kal va'Chomer; after they refuted it, he learned from the Gezeirah Shavah.
Question: If he had a [tradition for the] Gezeirah Shavah, why did he answer with a Kal va'Chomer?
Answer: He addressed them according to their reasoning:
I have a [tradition for a] Gezeirah Shavah - apparently, you do not [or else you would have known the law], and you cannot learn a Gezeirah Shavah without a tradition - but you yourselves should have made this Kal va'Chomer!
Benei Beseira: The Kal va'Chomer is refuted.
(Beraisa): On Erev Pesach, they inserted the knives in the wool or horns.
Question: This is working with Kodshim!
Answer: They did like Hillel:
(Beraisa): When Hillel was Nasi, nobody transgressed Me'ilah with his Olah - everyone would bring it to the Mikdash while it was Chulin, Makdish it, do Semichah and slaugher it [immediately].
Question: One cannot Makdish Pesach on Shabbos!
(Mishnah): The following are forbidden on Yom Tov, all the more so on Shabbos - to Makdish, to Ma'arich (pledge to Hekdesh an amount of money based on the age and gender of a person), to make Cherem (Hekdesh to Bedek ha'Bayis or to be given to Kohanim), and to separate Terumos and Ma'aseros.
Answer: One may not Makdish [even] an obligatory Korban which does not have a fixed time [e.g. Nedarim], but one may Makdish an obligatory Korban with a fixed time [like Pesach];
(R. Yochanan): One may Makdish a Pesach on Shabbos or a Chagigah (the Shelamim one must bring on each festival) on Yom Tov.
Question: This (causing animals to carry or do other Melachah on Shabbos)] is forbidden on account of Mechamer!
Answer: These are unskillful [ways to carry loads - Tosfos Yeshanim (Yoma 66, printed on 69A-B). Rashi - goats and sheep do not normally carry loads - see note 43 in Appendix.]
Question: Granted, this is permitted mid'Oraisa, but it is forbidden mid'Rabanan!
Answer: This was the question - may someone transgress Shevus unskillfully for the sake of a Mitzvah?
Hillel said that he heard this and forgot it - leave it to Yisrael to find a solution - if they are not Nevi'im, they are Benei Nevi'im!
THINGS LOST THROUGH HAUGHTINESS AND ANGER
(Rav Yehudah): If a Chacham or Navi gets haughty, his Chachmah or prophecy will depart;
We learn about a Chacham from Hillel - he began to provoke them verbally, and later he said 'I heard this and forgot it'.
We learn about a Navi from Devorah - [she praised herself above previous leaders,] "Chadlu Ferazon b'Yisrael Chadelu Ad sha'Kamti Devorah sha'Kamti Em b'Yisrael" - later, it says "Uri Uri Devorah Uri Uri Dabri Shir [Kum Barak u'Shave Shevyecha]" (to arouse herself to regain prophecy, which she had lost, she attributed the praise to Barak).
(Reish Lakish): If a Chacham or Navi gets angry, his Chachmah or prophecy will depart;
We learn about a Chacham from Moshe - "Va'Yiktzof Moshe Al Pekudei he'Chayil" (he was angry that the army didn't kill Benos Midyan), and it says "Va'Yomer Elazar...Zos Chukas ha'Torah Asher Tzivah Hash-m Es Moshe," implying that Moshe forgot [to tell them to Kasher Kelim];
We learn about a Navi from Elisha - [he told Yehoram, normally I would not look at an idolator like you -] "Lulei Pnei Yehoshafat...Im Abit Elecha"; [he lost his prophecy for this -] "V'Atah Kechu Li Menagen...va'Tehi Alav Ru'ach Hash-m." (Seemingly, we could also learn about a Navi from Moshe! Perhaps one might have thought that only Moshe's prophecy, which was more intense and required more Kedushah than that of other Nevi'im, would be lost on account of anger - PF.)
(R. Mani bar Patish): If one gets angry, even if greatness was apportioned [but not yet given] to him from Shomayim, he will lose it - we learn from Eli'av:
"Va'Yichar Af Eli'av b'David"... - when Shmuel went to anoint a son of Yishai, regarding the other sons it says "Ba'Zeh Lo Vachar Hash-m," but regarding Eli'av it says "Mi'astihu," implying that Hash-m initially desired him [but rejected him because there was a source of anger in his heart which would later come out - the anointing preceded Eli'av's anger].
PESACH MAY BE BROUGHT B'TUM'AH
Question: We have learned that Tamid and Pesach are Docheh Shabbos - what is the source that they may be brought b'Tum'ah?
Answer: Just like we learn Pesach from Tamid regarding Dichuy Shabbos, we learn Tamid from Pesach regarding Tum'ah.
Question: What is the source that Pesach may be brought b'Tum'ah?
Answer #1 (R. Yochanan): "Ish Ish Ki Yihyeh Tamei la'Nefesh" - an Ish (individual) is detained to Pesach Sheni, but a Tzibur is not - rather, the Tzibur brings it b'Tum'ah.
Objection (Reish Lakish): Perhaps an Ish is detained to Pesach Sheni, but there is no compensation for a Tzibur!
Answer #2 (Reish Lakish): Rather, we learn from "Vi'Shalchu Min ha'Machaneh Kol Tzaru'a v'Chol Zav v'Chol Tamei la'Nefesh."
Question: It should have said only Tamei la'Nefesh - we would know that all the more so, Zavim (people Tamei on account of emissions - see note in Appendix for Daf 67A) and Metzora'im must be sent from the Machaneh! (Later we will explain why they are more stringent.)
Answer: This teaches that there is a time when Metzora'im and Zavim are sent from the Machaneh, but a Tamei Mes is not, i.e. Pesach brought b'Tum'ah.