FOR WHICH KORBANOS IS ONE LIABLE?
Counter-question: Beraisa #2 contradicts itself!
Chachamim say that the Lav applies only to the Pesach - but then the Beraisa is Mechayev for slaughter, Zerikah, Melikah and Haza'ah (and the latter two apply only to birds)!
Answer to both questions: Both Beraisa #1 and [the Seifa of] Beraisa #2 are like R. Shimon:
He exempts Melikah on the 14th but he is Mechayev during Pesach - this is like he taught in our Mishnah (he exempts all other Korbanos on the 14th, and is Mechayev during Pesach);
Tana'im argue about the opinion of R. Shimon regarding Haktaras Chelev - the Tana of Beraisa #1 equates Haktarah to slaughter, the Tana of Beraisa #2 does not equate them.
(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): This applies also to the Tamid.
Question: What is his reason?
Answer: It says "Lo Sishchat Al Chametz Dam Zivchi" - My (Hash-m's) special Korban, the Tamid (it is called "Korbani Lachmi").
(Mishnah - R. Shimon): If one slaughtered Pesach on the 14th...
Question: What is his reason?
Answer: It says "Zivchi" twice ("Lo Sishchat...Zivchi" and "Lo Sizbach Al Chametz Dam Zivchi" - we move a Yud from one to the other, so one reads Zevach (alluding to Pesach) and the other reads Zivchai (other Korbanos).
Question: Why did the Torah write them this way - it could have explicitly written Zivchai!
Answer: This teaches that at the time of Zevach (Pesach), one is exempt for Zivchai (other Korbanos); not at the time of Zevach, one is liable for Zivchai.
(Mishnah): During Pesach, [if one slaughtered Pesach] Lishmah, he is exempt [...Lo Lishmah, he is liable].
Inference: He is exempt because it was Lo Lishmah - but Stam (without specifying intent) he would be exempt!
Question: Pesach at any other time is a Shelamim - he should be liable, like for a Shelamim!
Answer: This teaches that Pesach at any other time requires Akirah (one must change it to a Shelamim by slaughtering it explicitly l'Shem Shelamim)!
Rejection (R. Chiya bar Gamda): No - the case is, the owners were Tamei Mes on Pesach, the Korban is destined to be offered l'Shem Pesach on Pesach Sheni [but a Pesach which cannot be offered for Pesach does not need Akirah].
HOW PESACHIM WERE SLAUGHTERED
(Mishnah): Pesach is slaughtered in three groups, for it says "V'Shochatu Oso Kol Kehal Adas Yisrael" - we learn from Kehal, Adas and Yisrael.
The first group entered and filled the Azarah; they locked the doors and blew the Shofar - Teki'ah, Teru'ah, Teki'ah;
The Kohanim stand in lines [leading to the Mizbe'ach] - in some lines, all hold silver buckets; in the others, all hold gold buckets - no lines were mixed.
The buckets did not have a [flat] base, lest a Kohen put it down and [it would remain there until] the blood would congeal.
A Yisrael slaughtered; a Kohen received the blood, and gave it to another Kohen, who gave it to another [until the end of the line]; each receives a full bucket of blood and then returns an empty bucket.
The Kohen [at the end of a line] next to the Mizbe'ach threw it once, on a side above the Yesod (a protrusion surrounding the base of the Mizbe'ach on two sides).
The first group left and the second entered; when the second group left the third entered. The latter groups did like the first did.
They (the Leviyim) sang Hallel; if they finished it, they would repeat it a second and third time - it never happened that they sang it a third time.
R. Yehudah says, it never happened that they reached "Ohavti [Ki Yishma Hash-m," the fourth psalm] in the third group, because it was always small [so the Korbanos were finished quickly].
It is offered the same way on Shabbos as during the week; including washing the floor [from the blood afterwards - Kohanim plugged up the exit of the stream that flows through the Mikdash] - Chachamim disapproved of this.
R. Yehudah says, [after all the Pesachim were offered,] they would gather a cup of blood from the floor from and throw it once on the Mizbe'ach (this will be explained);
Question: How do we suspend and flay the Pesach?
Answer: There were iron hooks fixed in the walls and in pillars on which the animals were suspended and flayed;
For people who did not have room to suspend and flay, there were smooth, thin poles in the Azarah - [on a weekday] two people hold up a pole on their shoulders, the Pesach is flayed hanging on it;
R. Eliezer says, when it is on Shabbos [we cannot use poles, for they are Muktzeh, so], each man puts one hand on his friend's shoulder, and they flay the Pesach hanging from their arms;
They tore the animal and removed the Eimurim; they were put in a bowl and burned on the Mizbe'ach.
[On Shabbos] the first group would leave and sit in Har ha'Bayis; when the second left, they sat in the Cheil (see note 42 in Appendix); the third group stayed in its place [after it finished]. When it got dark, all went to roast the Pesachim.
DIVIDING YISRAEL INTO THREE GROUPS
(Gemara - R. Yitzchak): Each of the three groups must have [at least] 30 people.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: It says Kahal, Adas and Yisrael (each refers to at least 10 people) - we are unsure whether this requires them to offer Pesach together, or one after the other - therefore we [are stringent to] require three groups, each with at least 30 people:
If the three quorums must offer together, we fulfill this - there are 30 in each group; if they must offer one after the other, this is fulfilled, for we have three groups.
Really, it suffices to have 50 people - 30 enter for the first group, but only 10 offer their Pesachim; those 10 leave and another 10 enter, and 10 offer their Pesachim; those 10 leave and 10 enter, and all offer them (R. Chananel; Rashi - all 30 in the first group offer them right away - he holds that it suffices to have 30 people in the Azarah, even if some have already fulfilled Pesach).
(Mishnah): The first group entered...
(Abaye): The text says 'the doors were locked' (miraculously, by themselves);
(Rava): It says 'they lock the doors'.
Question: What do they argue about?
Answer: They argue about whether or not we rely on a miracle:
Abaye says 'the doors were locked' - as many people as possible entered, we rely on a miracle [to lock the doors so that people will remain for the latter groups. Iyun Yakov - normally, we do not rely on miracles - but this is for a Tzibur, and miracles are common in the Mikdash];
Rava says 'they lock the doors' - we do not rely on a miracle.
(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): Heaven forbid [to say like the first Tana of this Mishnah] that Akavya ben Mehalalel was excommunicated! The Azarah was not locked [on Erev Pesach] on anyone as great in Chachmah, Taharah and fear of sin as Akavya!
Abaye explains, there was no one in the Azarah as great as Akavya when it was locked [by itself] on all of Yisrael;
Rava explains, there was no one in the Azarah as great as Akavya when they locked it on all of Yisrael.
(Beraisa): No one was ever crushed in the Azarah, except for one [Erev] Pesach in the days of Hillel, when an elder was crushed - they called it 'the crushed Pesach'.
(Beraisa): Once, Melech Agripas (see note in Appendix) wanted to estimate the population of Yisrael; he told the Kohen Gadol to count the Pesachim. The Kohen Gadol kept a kidney from each Pesach - there were 1,200,000;
This does not include people who were Temei'im or far away; at least 10 people were Menuyim on each Pesach (over 12 million Yisraelim in all).
They called it the thick (populous) Pesach.
Question: How could the Kohen Gadol take a kidney from each - we must Maktir it [it is part of the Eimurim]!
Answer #1: Later, they burned them on the Mizbe'ach.
Question: "V'Hiktiro" - the Chelev of each Korban must be offered by itself!
Answer: Each was offered by itself.
Objection: "V'Hiktiram" - all the Eimurim of a Korban must be offered together!
Answer #2 - Correction: Rather, they held up a kidney from each [for an appointee to see, he counted it with some other marker].
PASSING BLOOD TO THE MIZBE'ACH
(Mishnah): The Kohanim stand in lines...[no lines were mixed with gold and silver buckets].
Question: What is the reason?
Suggestion: A Kohen should not return an empty gold bucket and receive a silver bucket [because we ascend in Kedushah, we do not descend].
Rejection: Even if all are the same material, perhaps he will return an empty bucket worth 200 and receive a bucket worth 100!
Answer: Rather, it looks nicer [if each line is uniform].
(Mishnah): The buckets did not have a [flat] base...
(Beraisa): All the buckets in the Mikdash did not have bases, except for the spoons in which Levonah was put on Lechem ha'Panim, lest [if it would be pointy] one would put it down [and support it on the Lechem] and it would break the Lechem. (This is like Aba Sha'ul (Menachos 96A), who says that the Levonah should be placed on the Shulchan between the piles of Lechem ha'Panim); the Amora'im (Menachos 94B) hold like R. Yehudah and R. Meir, who expound that it must be placed on the Lechem, and say that there was no room between the piles!)
(Mishnah): A Yisrael slaughtered, a Kohen received the blood...
Question: Must a Yisrael slaughter?!
Answer: The Mishnah teaches that a Zar may slaughter. (It was normal for Yisraelim to slaughter their own Pesachim - Divrei ha'Yamim 2:20:16-17 - perhaps this is because Kohanim are too busy doing Kabalah and Zerikah. Rashash (Berachos 31B) - Kohanim normally slaughtered other Korbanos.)
The Mishnah says that a Kohen received the blood - this teaches that from Kabalah and onwards, Kohanim must do the Avodah.
It says that he gave it to another Kohen - [since Holachah is an indispensible Avodah,] this teaches that Holachah without walking is considered Holachah.
Rejection: Perhaps he would move his feet a bit.
Question: If so, why does the Mishnah mention this?
Answer: It teaches that "B'Rav Am Hadras Melech" (it is more honorable when many engage in the Avodah).
(Mishnah): He receives a full bucket and then returns an empty bucket.
Inference: He does not return the empty bucket before receiving the full one - this supports Reish Lakish:
(Reish Lakish): We do not delay to fulfill a Mitzvah in front of us (returning an empty bucket is only preparation for Kabalah, it is not an actual Mitzvah).
(Mishnah): The Kohen next to the Mizbe'ach...
Question: Who is our Tana, who holds that we Zorek (throw) blood of Pesach [as opposed to pouring it]?
Answer (Rav Chisda): It is R. Yosi ha'Gelili:
(Beraisa - R. Yosi ha'Gelili): [Regarding Bechor] it says "Es Damam Tizrok v'Es Chelbam Taktir" - it does not say 'Damo' and 'Cheblo' (singular, its blood and Chelev), rather, "Damam" and "Chelbam" (plural, their blood...) - this teaches that blood and Eimurim of [not only] Bechor, [but also] Ma'aser and Pesach (for which there is no explicit source) are thrown and burned on the Mizbe'ach. (R. Yishmael holds that Dam Pesach is poured (121A) - he learns from "V'Dam Zevachecha Yishafech.")
Question: What is the source that they must be thrown on a side with Yesod?
Answer (R. Elazar): We learn from a Gezerah Shavah "Zerikah-Zerikah" from Olah - it says here "Es Damam Tizrok," and it says there "V'Zorku...Al ha'Mizbe'ach Soviv";
Just like Dam Olah requires Yesod, also Dam Pesach.
Question: What is the source that Dam Olah requires Yesod?
Answer: We learn from "El Yesod Mizbach ha'Olah" (this is extra to teach this).