HOW THE MEAT WAS HUCHSHAR
(Mishnah): The meat is Tamei.
Question: How was the meat Huchshar?
Answer #1: It was Huchshar through blood [during slaughter].
Rejection: R. Chiya bar Aba taught that blood of Kodshim is not Machshir - we learn from "Al ha'Aretz Tishpechenu ka'Mayim" - only blood which is spilled like water is Machshir, but not blood of Kodshim!
Answer #2: It was Huchshar through liquids of Beis Mitbechai.
Rejection: R. Yosi b'Ribi Chanina taught, not only are liquids of Beis Mitbechai Tehorim - they are not even Machshir!
Answer #3: It was Huchshar through Chibas ha'Kodesh (the dearness of Kodshim esteems it as if it was Huchshar).
Question: Granted, Chibas ha'Kodesh is Machshir to enable it to become Nifsal - does it enable to make a Sheni? (The Mishnah says that the meat is Tamei, not just Pasul.)
Suggestion: We can resolve Reish Lakish's question!
Question (Reish Lakish): If a dry Minchah (Aruch - a flour-offering without oil; Rashi - the part of a Minchah which did not touch oil) became Tamei, does it make a Sheni (can it Metamei other foods? It was not Huchshar through a liquid, only through Chibas ha'Kodesh.)
Rejection (Rav Yehudah): No - [the meat was not Huchshar through Chibas ha'Kodesh, rather,] the animal was taken through a river (Rashi - to facilitate flaying; Rambam - to clear the lungs of scabs that can make it appear Tereifah), it was still wet after slaughter. (Rashi - surely, some water fell on the meat; Tosfos - the meat is Huchshar through the skin.)
(Mishnah): If it was found in the Peresh (excrement), everything is Tahor.
Question: The Peresh should Metamei the meat!
Answer #1 (Rav Ada bar Ahavah): The case is, the Peresh is thick (it is considered a food), therefore it cannot Metamei another food. (It itself is Tamei - 'everything is Tahor' refers only to the knife, hands and meat.)
Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): Since Peresh is putrid, it can even be fluid (it is not Mekabel Tum'ah at all).
A SHERETZ IS METAMEI THREE DEGREES
(A reciter of Beraisos): A Sheretz is Metamei liquids, the liquids are Metamei Kelim, Kelim Metamei food, and food is Metamei liquids - we learn three [levels of] Tum'ah from a Sheretz.
Question: It lists four Tum'os!
Answer: We must delete the first time it mentions liquids.
Question: Why not delete the second mention of liquids?
Answer: The only Tana who said that liquids Metamei Kelim is R. Yehudah, and he retracted!
A way to remember this is the way beer is brewed (one brings a Keli, then barley (food), then the liquid).
(Mishnah): If a Sheretz was found in a [Cheres] oven, the bread inside is a Sheni, for the oven is a Rishon.
Question (Rav Ada): [Since a Sheretz is Metamei the interior of an oven even if it did not touch the walls,] we should view the entire oven as if it was full of Tum'ah, and the loaf should be a Rishon!
Answer (Rava): We do not view it like this [for if we did, Kelim inside would become Tamei]:
(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps all Kelim are Mekabel Tum'ah from the airspace of a Kli Cheres!
Rejection: "Kol Asher b'Socho Yitma...; Mi'Kol ha'Ochel Asher Ye'achel" - food is Mekabel Tum'ah from the airspace of a Kli Cheres, Kelim are not.
MAY WE BURN TALUY AND TAMEI TOGETHER?
Question (Rav Chisda): In our Mishnah (14A), R. Yehoshua permits burning Taluy and Tamei Terumah [of Chametz] together;
Contradiction (Beraisa - R. Yosi): What you seek to learn is unlike your source! Our teachers (R. Yehoshua and R. Eliezer) testified about burning meat [or oil] that was Nitma [or Nifsal] through a Vlad ha'Tum'ah [or a Tevul Yom] with meat [or oil] that was Nitma through an Av ha'Tum'ah - I agree that we may burn [Chametz] Terumah that was Nitma through a Vlad ha'Tum'ah with Terumah that was Nitma through an Av!
But how can we burn even Taluy Terumah with Tamei - perhaps Eliyahu will come and tell us that it was Tahor!
Answer (Rav Chisda): R. Shimon says that R. Yehoshua permits burning them together; R. Yosi says that he forbids:
(Beraisa - R. Meir): When the 14th falls on Shabbos (we cannot burn Chametz at the time of Bi'ur), we destroy everything before Shabbos; we burn Terumah, whether it is Tamei, Taluy or Tahor;
R. Yosi says, we burn separately Tamei, Taluy and Tahor Terumah.
R. Shimon says, R. Eliezer and R. Yehoshua agree that we burn Tahor and Tamei separately, and that we may burn Tahor and Taluy together;
They argue about whether or not we may burn Taluy and Tamei together - R. Yehoshua permits, and R. Eliezer forbids.
Question: In our Mishnah (14A), R. Yosi said that R. Yehoshua permits burning Taluy and Tamei together!
Answer: R. Yosi told R. Meir that even the lenient opinion, R. Yehoshua according to R. Shimon, permits only Taluy and Tamei together, but not Tahor and Tamei.
Question (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): In our Mishnah (14A), R. Yehoshua permits burning Taluy and Tamei Terumah [of Chametz] together;
Contradiction (Mishnah #1 - R. Eliezer): If a barrel of Terumah is Safek Tamei:
If it was in an open place (it is prone to become Vadai Tamei), we put it in a hidden place; if it was exposed, we cover it;
R. Yehoshua says, if it was in a hidden place, we put it in an open place; if it was covered, we [may] expose it (alternatively, one should do so, so it will become Vadai Tamei and thus usable).
R. Yehoshua permits only Gerama (causation) - he does not permit to overtly Metamei [what is Taluy]!
Answer (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): R. Shimon says that R. Yehoshua permits burning them together; R. Yosi says that he forbids.
Question (R. Elazar): In Mishnah #1, R. Yehoshua permits only Gerama - he does not permit to overtly Metamei [Taluy];
Contradiction (Mishnah #2): If a barrel of Terumah wine broke in the upper winepress and it is about to fall into Tamei Chulin below, R. Eliezer and R. Yehoshua agree that if one can save a Revi'is in Taharah, he must do so;
If he cannot - R. Eliezer says, he must allow the Terumah to fall, he may not actively Metamei it;
R. Yehoshua says, he may actively Metamei the Terumah.
Answer (R. Elazar): R. Yehoshua permits in order to avoid a loss of Chulin.
Question (Rava): Also in our Mishnah, R. Yehoshua requires burning separately even though this entails a loss, i.e. extra wood is required!
Answer (Abaye): Chachamim were concerned for a large loss, but not for a small loss.
WE ARE CONCERNED FOR A SMALL LOSS?
Question: What is the source that Chachamim were concerned for a large loss, but not for a small loss?
Answer (Beraisa): If a barrel of Terumah oil broke in the upper olivepress and it is about to fall into Tamei Chulin below, R. Eliezer and R. Yehoshua agree that if one can save a Revi'is in Taharah, he must do so; and if he cannot, he must allow the Terumah to fall, he may not actively Metamei it.
Question: Presumably, R. Yehoshua forbids regarding oil, for even Tamei Terumah oil may be burned (it is not a total loss) - likewise, Tamei Terumah wine may be used for Ziluf (sprinkling to scent the house)!
Suggestion: Perhaps Ziluf is not an important usage!
Rejection: Shmuel said that it is appropriate to spend one Sela for a Log of wine for drinking, and two Sela'im for a Log for Ziluf!
Answer: R. Yehoshua permits to Metamei new wine, for [this would be a big loss - it has no scent,] it is not fitting for Ziluf.
Question: He may let it age (it will be fitting later)!
Answer: We are concerned for Takalah, lest someone drink it while it is aging.
Question: If so, we should likewise be concerned lest someone consume Tamei Terumah oil!
Answer: He puts the oil in a disgusting Keli (no one will want to consume it).
Question: Also wine can be put in a disgusting Keli!
Answer: If so, it would not be fit for Ziluf.
Tana'im argue about whether or not we are concerned for Takalah (Beis Shamai (Rashi - and Beis Hillel) are not concerned; R. Yishmael (Tosfos - and Beis Hillel) are concerned)::
(Beraisa - Beis Shamai): If a barrel of Terumah wine became Tamei, we spill it all out;
Beis Hillel say, it may be used for Ziluf.
Version #1 - R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi: I will Machri'a (give an intermediate opinion) - if it became Tamei in the field, he spills it out [since he would not do Ziluf immediately there, we are concerned for Takalah]; if it was in the house, he may do Ziluf;
Version #2 - R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi: I will Machri'a - new wine must be spilled out; old may be used for Ziluf. (end of Version #2)
Chachamim: You are not a Machri'a (Tosfos - Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel did not distinguish the house from the field, or new wine from old; Rashi - they are not concerned for Takalah).