1) "SHINUY MAKOM" WHEN ONE MOVES FROM ROOM TO ROOM
QUESTION: The Gemara says that Kidush must be recited "b'Makom Se'udah," in the place where one plans to eat his meal. One may not recite Kidush in one house and then go to another house to eat his meal. Furthermore, he may not even go from one room to another room ("mi'Makom l'Makom") in one house, or from the roof to the ground floor.
In the Sugya that follows (101b), the Gemara relates that when one starts his meal in one location and then goes elsewhere ("Shinuy Makom"), he must recite a new Berachah Rishonah on the food that he wants to eat in the new place. The Gemara says that this applies only when one goes from one house to another, but not from one room to another ("mi'Makom l'Makom") in one house.
What is the difference between a Shinuy Makom for Kidush b'Makom Se'udah, and a Shinuy Makom for a new Berachah?
The term "mi'Makom l'Makom" is used in both Sugyos. In the Sugya of Kidush b'Makom Se'udah, the Gemara says that "mi'Makom l'Makom" in one house is considered a Shinuy Makom, while in the Sugya of Berachah Rishonah, the Gemara says that "mi'Makom l'Makom" in one house is not a Shinuy Makom. This follows the Girsa of Rashi.
Other Rishonim (RABEINU CHANANEL, RIF, RAMBAM) have a different Girsa. In both Sugyos, the Gemara says "mi'Pinah l'Pinah" ("from one corner to another corner" in the same room). According to this Girsa as well, the question applies. Why is going from one corner to another considered a Shinuy Makom with regard to Kidush b'Makom Se'udah, but not with regard to a new Berachah Rishonah?
(a) TOSFOS (DH Aval) and the ROSH (10:5) have yet a third Girsa. In the Sugya of Kidush b'Makom Se'udah, the Gemara says that it is a Shinuy Makom if one goes "mi'Makom l'Makom" in one house. This implies that from corner to corner in the same room is not considered a Shinuy Makom. In the Sugya of Berachah Rishonah, the Gemara says that "mi'Pinah l'Pinah" in the same room is not a Shinuy Makom. This implies that from one room to another room in one house is a Shinuy Makom. According to this Girsa, the two Sugyos are consistent with each other.
Based on this version of the Gemara, the Rosh explains that while it is not a Shinuy Makom when one moves from corner to corner within one room, it is a Shinuy Makom when he moves from one room to another. Similarly, Tosfos writes that when one walks from an anteroom to the house, or from the house to the attic, it is also a Shinuy Makom. However, from corner to corner in one room is not a Shinuy Makom. This is also the opinion of the TUR (OC 178).
(b) Nevertheless, according to the Girsa of RASHI and the RIF, the Gemara uses the same term in both Sugyos. How do they reconcile the contradiction between the two Sugyos?
It must be that, according to these Rishonim, the Halachah of Shinuy Makom with regard to Kidush b'Makom Se'udah is more stringent than the Halachah with regard to a Berachah Rishonah. The RAN suggests a logical explanation for the difference. When one drinks the wine of Kidush, he must drink it in the place where he will partake of his meal. The "place of his meal" is defined as the place where he will sit to eat his meal. If he makes Kidush and then moves elsewhere to eat his meal (even in the same room), his Kidush was not b'Makom Se'udah.
However, with regard to a new Berachah Rishonah, the Gemara does not discuss one who wishes to eat bread, i.e. a full "Se'udah." Rather, it mentions only wine and fruit. When one eats things other than a "Se'udah," the entire house is considered his eating place. Therefore, if he moves from one corner to another corner, or even from one room to another, it is not a Shinuy Makom, and he does not recite a new Berachah.
Accordingly, when one eats bread or cake, he establishes one specific eating place. Thus, when he moves to a different corner, it is a Shinuy Makom, just as it is in the case of Kidush b'Makom Se'udah. (Note that even though such a situation is considered a Shinuy Makom, in practice one might not have to recite a new Berachah when he eats bread. See Insights to Pesachim 102:1.)
(c) The MAHARAM CHALAVAH also differentiates between Kidush and Berachah Rishonah, but with a slightly different logic. He explains that in order to establish one's "Makom Kevi'us Se'udah," the set place for his meal, it does not suffice to make Kidush in the place where he plans to eat. Rather, he must make Kidush where the bread itself will be eaten ("Makom Pito Gorem"). Indeed, moving to another area in the same house is not considered a Shinuy Makom, but for Kidush one must be in the exact same place as the bread that will be eaten. Therefore, with regard to a Berachah Rishonah, as long as one remains in the same house in which he started to eat, he does not need to say a new Berachah. However, with regard to Kidush, one must recite Kidush in the very place where he will consume his bread.
(The explanation of the Maharam Chalavah differs from that of the Ran with regard to the Halachah of a Berachah Rishonah when one moves with bread from one room to another, inside the house. According to the Ran, this is a Shinuy Makom, as mentioned above, while according to the Maharam Chalavah it is not.)
HALACHAH: There is a basic difference of opinion reflected in these three answers as to one's status when he moves from one room to another in the same house.
1. The ROSH says that it is considered a Shinuy Makom.
2. The RAN says that it is a Shinuy Makom only when he eats bread, but not when he drinks wine.
3. The MAHARAM CHALAVAH says that from one room to another in one house is never considered a Shinuy Makom.
What is the Halachah?
The SHULCHAN ARUCH (OC 178) cites the opinion of the Rosh and says that even when one goes from one room to another it is a Shinuy Makom and he must recite a new Berachah.
However, the BI'UR HALACHAH says that the widespread Minhag is not to recite a new Berachah when one goes from one room to another. He shows that this is the opinion of the majority of the Rishonim whose Girsa of the Gemara includes the same phrase with regard to both Kidush and Berachah. Therefore, when one drinks wine or eats snack foods, he need not recite a new Berachah when he walks from one room to another in the same house. (When he eats bread, the Halachah follows Rav Chisda, and, therefore, b'Di'eved one does not recite a new Berachah in the new place; see Insights to Pesachim 102:1.) The Bi'ur Halachah concludes that l'Chatchilah, one should not change rooms while he eats, out of respect for the opinion of the Rosh and Tosfos that it is a Shinuy Makom. On the other hand, one need not stop those who do move from room to room, since there is strong support in the Rishonim for their practice.
There are two situations in which one is permitted to move from room to room while he eats, even l'Chatchilah. The first situation is when he can see the second room or part of it (even through a window) from where he recited his original Berachah (Mishnah Berurah OC 178:12). The second situation is when he has in mind when he begins to eat that he will walk to the other room (RA'AVAD, cited by the REMA OC 178:1).