[79a - 48 lines; 79b - 54 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gilyon ha'Shas 1:

The words Perek 1 Mishnah 4 d'Ohalos

should be Perek 1 Mishnah 2 d'Ohalos



(a)If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating how long he wishes his vow to be in effect, he becomes a Nazir for a period of thirty days. During this time, he may not: 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any product of a grapevine. If he specifies a period of time for which he wishes his vow to be in effect, then he must follow all of these regulations for the time period specified.

(b)Upon the completion of his period of Nezirus, a Nazir offers three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour) which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves all of his hair and burns it in the fire underneath the pot in which the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18).

2)[line 16]מנחה מאי עבידתה?MINCHAH MAI AVIDTAH?- what does [Zerikas ha'Dam] have to do with a Korban Minchah?

3)[line 16]מנחת נסכיםMINCHAS NESACHIM

A Minchas Nesachim is a Korban Minchah (meal-offering; see Background to Menachos 2:1) offered together with a Korban Shelamim or Olah. This term describes such a Minchah offered along with Korbanos offered by the Tzibur (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21), as well as those offered by an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). It is called a Minchas "Nesachim" due to that which it is normally offered along with the Nesachim (wine libations) belonging to the Korbanos.

4)[line 19]ומטו בהU'MATU VAH- and there are those who lean toward [citing] it

5)[line 21]"והקטיר החלב לריח ניחוח לה'""V'HIKTIR HA'CHELEV L'REI'ACH NICHO'ACH LA'SH-M"- "And he shall burn the fats for a pleasing aroma to HaSh-m." (Vayikra 17:6)

6)[line 22]יותרת הכבדYOSERES HA'KAVED- the diaphragm

7)[line 22]כליותKELAYOS- kidneys

8)[line 29]יעשו בטומאהYA'ASU B'TUM'AH- [even an individual who is Tamei] may offer his Korban Pesach while Tamei [since all of the Pesachim offered will be done so b'Tum'ah anyway]

9)[line 33]שאין קרבן ציבור חלוקSHE'EIN KORBAN TZIBUR CHALUK- for a communal Korban offered b'Tum'ah is not split [into various factions; rather, if anyone may offer any part of it b'Tum'ah, everyone may]

10)[line 33]לא שנוLO SHANU- we have not learned [that the Korban Pesach may be offered b'Tum'ah when the vessels of the Beis ha'Mikdash are Teme'im]

11)[line 34]חרב הרי הוא כחללCHEREV HAREI HU K'CHALAL (A sword is like a corpse)

(a)A metal utensil which comes into contact with a dead body receives the same level of Tum'ah as the body — that of an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah. Similarly, if a metal utensil comes into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah which has received its Tum'ah from a Mes, it receives the status of an Av ha'Tum'ah. (A Rishon or Sheni l'Tum'ah cannot transfer Tum'ah to utensils.) This is derived from the description in the Torah of a dead body as a "Chalal Cherev" — "A body [who died by the] sword". From this wording we learn that a sword — i.e., a metal utensil — is similar to the dead body itself in terms of Tum'ah.

(b)According to some Rishonim, this law applies to non-metal utensils (other than earthenware ones) as well; see Insights to Pesachim 14:2.

12)[line 35]בטומאת הגוףB'TUM'AS HA'GUF

Tum'as ha'Guf means that the Kohen himself, as opposed to the Korban which he is offering or eating, is Tamei. It is prohibited to offer a Korban, enter the Mikdash (Bamidbar 5:3), or eat Kodshim (Vayikra 12:4) while Tamei. The punishment for offering a Korban b'Tum'ah is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim; for entering the Mikdash or eating Kodshim b'Tum'ah is Kares.

13)[line 36]בטומאת שרץTUM'AS SHERETZ

(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)A source of Tum'ah is called an Av ha'Tum'ah. The exception to this is a corpse, which is referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah," due to the fact that it can generate more Tum'ah than any other object. When an object becomes Tamei from coming into contact with an object which is Tamei, that object does not receive the same Tum'ah as that of the first object, but rather a level of Tum'ah one degree weaker than the first. If an object came into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Vlad ha'Tum'ah. Tum'ah received from a Rishon creates a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and that from a Sheni creates a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.

(c)A metal utensil can become an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, an Av ha'Tum'ah or a Rishon l'Tum'ah (see Insights to Pesachim 14:2); a person and all utensils other than earthenware can become an Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah (although Chazal decreed that one's hands sometimes become a Sheni l'Tum'ah); earthenware utensils can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah; food and liquids which are Chulin can become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or a Sheni l'Tum'ah; Terumah can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah as well; and Hekdesh can also become a Revi'i l'Tum'ah.

(d)There are eight Sheratzim (crawling pests) described by the Torah as sources of Tum'ah (Vayikra 11:29-38). A Sheretz, even if it or a part of it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a). It makes a person or object Tamei through Maga (contact), whether the Sheretz was touched willingly or unwillingly. The person who becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah of the Beis Ha'Mikdash. However, he can immediately immerse in a Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah. The eight Sheratzim (based on Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan's "The Living Torah" and other sources) are:

1.CHOLED - weasel [alt., a martin or an ermine (ARUCH), a rat (TARGUM, TOSFOS YOM TOV), mole or mole-rat (ARUCH), or field mouse (TARGUM YONASAN)]. According to the Gemara, it is a predatory animal that bores under the ground and undermines houses.

2.ACHBAR - mouse; some sources appear to include also the rat

3.TZAV - toad (RASHI to Vayikra 11:29, Nidah 56a; this is also evident from the Mishnah in Taharos 5:1 which implies that it is similar in appearance to a frog - see Rishonim there); alternatively, tortoise (ME'AM LOEZ, TIFERES YISRAEL to Taharos ibid.). According to the Septuagint, it is the land crocodile (perhaps the monitor, see #5 below, KO'ACH; a Talmudic source (Chulin 127a) associates it with the salamander and snake). Others identify it with the ferret.

4.ANAKAH - hedgehog; alt., beaver (RADAK). (The Septuagint translates it as a mole, shrew mouse or field mouse.) Rabeinu Sa'adya Ga'on translates it as a gecko, which is up to five inches long with a soft speckled hide; "Anachah" denotes groaning and the gecko makes a groaning sound.

5.KO'ACH - a lizard (RADAK quoting RASHI) (the chameleon, according to the Septuagint.) From the translation of others it appears to be the monitor or monitor lizard, the largest reptile in the Holy Land, growing as long as four feet. Living on the coast, the Negev, and the Aravah, it eats rodents and reptiles (RADAK, RABEINU SA'ADYA GA'ON).

6.LETA'AH - (O.F. laiserde) lizard; alt., the white lizard, also known as the great gecko.

7.CHOMET - (O.F. limace) snail (RASHI) (alt., a lizard, or the skink, a lizard with small legs of which four varieties are found in Eretz Yisrael).

8.TINSHEMES - mole (Rashi to Chulin 63a) (alt., a large-headed lizard that burrows underground, probably a type of gecko)

(e)In addition to Tum'as Maga, a dead Sheretz in the airspace of an earthenware vessel causes the oven as well as all food items within it to become Tamei, whether the Sheretz has come into contact with them or not.

14)[line 37]בטומאת בשרTUM'AS BASAR

Tum'as Basar refers to the Tamei status of the meat of a Korban, as opposed to that of the Kohen eating it or offering it. It is forbidden to partake of Kodshim that have become Tamei (Vayikra 7:19). One incurs the punishment of Malkus for consuming Tamei meat intentionally. (Sefer ha'Chinuch #145)

15)[line 38]טומאה דחויה היא בציבורTUM'AH DECHUYAH HI B'TZIBUR- see Background to 77:6

16)[line 46]הללו עושין לעצמן והללו עושין לעצמןHALALU OSIN L'ATZMAN V'HALALU OSIN L'ATZMAN- those who are Tahor offer their Pesach b'Taharah (since they are considered like a majority, and may not offer it b'Tum'ah), and those who are Tamei offer it b'Tum'ah (since they are considered like a majority, and may offer it b'Tum'ah)


17)[line 39]ונשים משלימות לטמאיםV'NASHIM MASHLIMOS LA'TEME'IN- but this is due to the fact that the majority of the women are Teme'os [and therefore, together with the men who are mostly Tahor, there is an exact fifty-fifty split in Klal Yisrael]

18)[line 39]נשים בראשון רשותNASHIM B'RISHON RESHUS- (lit. for women on the first day, it is voluntary) women are not obligated to offer the Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nissan

19)[line 43]ונשים עודפות על הטהוריםV'NASHIM ODFOS AL HA'TEHORIM- [exactly half of the men are Tamei and half are Tahor] and there are more women who are Tahor than Tamei

20)[line 45]דל נשים מינייהוDAL NASHIM MINAIHU- remove the women from the equation [when looking back retroactively at the time of Pesach Rishon]

21)[last line]מכריע את הציבורMACHRI'A ES HA'TZIBUR- decide [the status of] the public