[78a - 46 lines; 78b - 57 lines]
1)[line 1]כאן ביחיד כאן בציבורKAN B'YACHID KAN B'TZIBUR- here (in the Beraisa) the case is one of an individual [in which case Rebbi Yehoshua rules that his Korban is accepted when it is Tamei only b'Di'eved]; here (in our Mishnah) the case is one of a Tzibur [in which case Rebbi Yehoshua rules that Tum'ah Hutrah b'Tzibur, and therefore the Korban may be offered l'Chatchilah even when it is Tamei]. (See Insights.)
2)[line 12]למיקבעיה בפיגולL'MIKVE'EI B'PIGUL (PIGUL: K'HARTZA'AS KASHER KACH HARTZA'AS PIGUL)
(a)If one slaughters a sacrifice with the intention to offer or eat it after the time within which it must be offered or eaten, it is disqualified. Such a Korban may not be eaten, as the verse in Vayikra (7:18) states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh" - "If [the person offering the Korban plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid; rejected), and it will not be counted in his favor."
(b)If a person intentionally consumes Pigul he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it unintentionally he must bring a Korban Chatas. (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 144)
(c)A Korban receives the status of Pigul if at least one of the primary four Avodos of the Korban - Shechitah, Kabalah, Holachah, and Zerikah - has been performed with intent to eat the Korban after its allotted time (Machsheves Pigul). Therefore, one will not receive a penalty of Kares for consuming a Korban upon which there was a Machsheves Pigul until after the Zerikas ha'Dam.
(d)This is true, however, only if these four Avodos are otherwise performed properly. If one of these Avodos is performed with Machsheves Pigul while another is performed with a different disqualifying intention (Machsheves Pesul), one who consumes the Korban does not incur the punishment of Kares.
(e)Rebbi Eliezer, who maintains that Ritzuy Tzitz is not required in order to perform Zerikas Dam, understands that one of the accomplishments of the Ritzuy is that there is no Pesul currently in this Korban. Therefore, if there is a Machsheves Pigul, one who partakes of the meat of the Korban will receive Kares.
(a)It is forbidden to derive any personal benefit from that is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol bi'Sh'arecha... v'Chol Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3). The minimum amount of benefit for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth.
(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh intentionally, he is liable to receive Malkus (according to the Rabanan; according to Rebbi he is liable for Misah b'Yedei Shamayim). In addition, he must pay Hekdesh for the benefit which he received; however, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.
(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh unintentionally, he must bring a Korban known as a Korban Me'ilah. He must then reimburse Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, equal to a quarter of the original value). The object then loses its Kedushah. This is true of any object which has the status of Kedushas Damim (i.e. it itself will not be used by Hekdesh, but rather its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object which has the status of Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live animal pledged to be offered as a Korban) does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).
(d)Once the blood of a Korban has been dashed upon the Mizbe'ach and its owners or the Kohanim may partake of it, it is no longer classified as Kodshei Kodashim and it is not possible to be Mo'il in it. Therefore, if Ritzuy Tzitz allows the meat of a Korban to be consumed, Me'ilah will no longer apply to it.
4)[line 22]לקרב עמהןLA'KAREV IMAHEN- [that the Mishnah is referring only to a situation in which the Shtei ha'Lechem are offered along with] that which is offered with them (i.e. the Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur that are offered with the Shtei ha'Lechem; see Background to 76:30:b and 32.)
5)[line 25]אחד זה ואחד זהECHAD ZEH V'ECHAD ZEH (PARAH ADUMAH)
(a)A Parah Adumah is a red cow; if there are as many as two hairs of any other color it is not a Parah Adumah (see Maseches Parah 2:5). Only a cow which has never had a yoke placed upon it nor performed any other work is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow as it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).
(b)If a person or utensil becomes Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to go to the Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov (hyssop) branches which have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).
(c)The Parah Adumah must be burned by a Kohen who is Tahor. The Kohen who burns the Parah Adumah must separate himself prior to the task for seven days, as we suspect that he may have become Tamei without realizing it. This is not a Din Torah, but rather a stringent practice. He is treated as if he himself is a Temei Mes, and Mei Chatas is sprinkled upon him on the third and seventh days. Rebbi Meir goes so far as to say that he is treated with Mei Chatas on each of the first three days, as perhaps the first or second day is really the third day from when he became Tamei.
(d)The Kohen Gadol must be Tahor in order to perform the Avodah on Yom Kippur. Prior to Yom Kippur, he was treated similarly to the Kohen who burned the Parah Adumah. Due to a suspicion that he may have inadvertently become Tamei, he is sprinkled with Mei Chatas in the seven-day period leading up to Yom Kippur. The law of these two individuals - the Kohen who burns the Parah Adumah and the Kohen Gadol prior to Yom Kippur - are the subject of the Machlokes between Rebbi Meir and Rebbi Yosi.
6)[line 26]מכל חטאות שהיו שםMI'KOL CHATA'OS SHE'HAYU SHAM- from the ashes of all of the Paros Adumos which were there in the Beis ha'Mikdash. There were either seven or nine Paros Adumos in history (see Mishnayos Parah 3:5), and there remained ashes from even the first of them - burned by Klal Yisrael in the desert - in the Beis ha'Mikdash.
7)[line 29]ורבי יוסי שטרא מזכי לבי תרי הוא?V'REBBI YOSI SHETARA MEZAKEI L'VEI TEREI HU?- and is Rebbi Yosi like a contract which favors both parties (i.e., how can Rebbi Yosi accept two contradictory opinions as Halachah)?
8)[line 2]אלא...ELA...- Rather, [both of Rebbi Yosi's statements refer to private Korbanos]
9)[line 23]שכל ישראל יוצאין בפסח אחדSHE'KOL YISRAEL YOTZ'IN B'PESACH ECHAD- that [theoretically] all of Klal Yisrael may offer one Korban Pesach jointly [even though there will not be enough for every one of them to have a k'Zayis]
10)[line 28]דאי ממשכי הני חזי להו...D'IY MAMSHECHI HANI CHAZI L'HU ...- for [theoretically] if enough of Klal Yisrael removed themselves from the [joint] Korban, those remaining could partake of a k'Zayis each [whereas in our Mishnah, it will never be possible to eat a k'Zayis of a Pesach which is Tamei]
11)[line 47]אין מחשבת אוכלין בזריקהEIN MACHSHEVES OCHLIN BI'ZERIKAH
Intent that the Avodah being performed is for the sake of someone who is unfit to eat the Korban does not invalidate the Korban when it is thought during Zerikah; such intentions only invalidate a Korban if it is slaughtered with such intentions (see Insights to Pesachim 61:2).
12)[line 49]חליםCHALIM- well (healthy)
13)[line 53]יזרק הדם בטהרהYIZAREK HA'DAM B'TAHARAH- the blood should be dashed [upon the Mizbe'ach by Kohanim and vessels which are] Tahor
14)[line 54]ורבי נתן היאV'REBBI NASAN HI- Rebbi Elazar maintains that Rebbi Nasan does not even require that he who offers the Korban Pesach be able to partake of it, and that the opinion stated in the previous Beraisa must only be that of the Rabanan.
15)[line 55]בציבורB'TZIBUR- that is, that between the slaughter of the Korban Pesach and the Zerikas ha'Dam, most of Klal Yisrael became Tamei. One explanation for such an occurrence would be that the Nasi died then (see Background to Pesachim 70:12).
16)[line 56]אשתקד לא נטמאנוESHTAKAD, LO NITMANU?- last year, were we not Tamei?