[27a - 47 lines; 27b - 48 lines]

1)[line 2]שפיר של שליאSHEFIR SHEL SHILYA- the embryo of one Shilya (fetal membranes) (see Background to Nidah 24:25, 27, 29)

2)[line 12]יולדת לתשעה יולדת למקוטעיןYOLEDES L'TISH'AH YOLEDES L'MEKUTA'IN

(a)According to Chazal, a woman can give birth to a viable child only after a seven-month or a nine-month term of pregnancy. The child that is born after an eight-month term will not be viable. Even if he appears normal upon birth it is assumed that he will not survive and will die from a birth defect shortly.

(b)The Amora'im argue as to whether the child born at the beginning, but before the end, of the ninth month ("l'Mekuta'in") can be viable. According to all opinions, however, a woman who gives birth in the seventh month can bear a viable child even if the child is born before the end of the seventh month (Nidah 38b). (For example, Shmuel ha'Navi was born after six months and two days, as mentioned in Yevamos 42a, based on the verse in Shmuel I 1:20).

3)[line 24]טיפה אחת היתה, ונתחלקה לשתיםTIPAH ACHAS HAYESAH, V'NISCHALKAH LI'SHTAYIM- there was one fertilized egg (lit. drop) that split into two, i.e. identical twins

4)[line 31]בית החיצוןBAYIS HA'CHITZON- an outer room

5)[line 32]אבלAVAL- indeed

6)[line 40]אחיכו עליהACHICHU ALEI- they laughed at him

7)[line 42]"אם נבלת, בהתנשא; ואם זמות, יד לפה""IM NAVALTA V'HISNASEI; V'IM ZAMOSA, YAD L'FEH"- "If you disgraced yourself, you shall be elevated; if you muzzled yourself, you shall put your hand to your mouth" (Mishlei 30:32) - If you disgrace yourself for the sake of learning Torah, you will become great (a Torah scholar). If you keep quiet, you will never know the Torah. "You shall put your hand to your mouth" means that you will not be able to answer questions.

8)[line 44]מלא תרוד רקבMELO TARVAD RAKAV

An amount of Rakav (decomposed human remains) from a decomposed corpse that could fill a Tarvad (a large spoon that measures two handfuls), is Metamei b'Ohel (Ohalos 2:1; see Background to Nidah 26:16). Rakav is Metamei only if it is from a bare corpse that decomposed and was not mixed with anything else (Nidah 27b). (According to the Yerushalmi (Nazir 35b), a Tarvad is the total amount of decomposed matter that is produced from any one corpse that decomposes.)

9)[line 46]פרידות עפרPEREIDOS AFAR- particles of dirt


10)[line 4]גנגילוןGANGILON- (a) something that nullifies something else (RASHI); (b) something that is "dragged along" with something else (ARUCH, cited by Tosfos) (other versions of this word exist: GILGELIN, GALGALIN and GALGILON)

11)[line 6]ארון של שישARON SHEL SHAYISH- a marble coffin

12)[line 10]לבניםLEVENIM- bricks

13a)[line 11]מתMES- a person who dies of natural causes (whose body is whole)

b)[line 12]הרוגHARUG- a person who was murdered (since he lost blood during the murder; a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai states that a person who was murdered does not produce Rakav, even if no blood was spilled, such as a person who was strangled - ARUCH L'NER)

14)[line 16]דמכניףD'MACHNIF- that it is gathered together

15)[line 18]אין מאהיל וחוזר ומאהילEIN MA'AHIL V'CHOZER U'MA'AHIL- that is, each part of the ceiling serves as an Ohel to only one speck of Rakav, which is less than a Tarvad. The distinct Ohalos are not combined to cause Tum'as Ohel (RASHI).

16)[line 32]ששפעה חררת דםSHE'SHAF'AH CHARARAS DAM- that discharged a [large] clot of blood

17)[line 44]כעין שהזריעהK'EIN SHE'HIZRI'AH- a disintegrated embryo with no form, similar to an ovum at the time it is fertilized

18)[line 44]טרפוהו במימיוTARFUHU B'MEIMAV- it was mixed up vehemently (a) in the water in which it was washed (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) in the amniotic fluid that comes out with it at birth (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

19)[line 45]נתבלבלה צורתוNISBALBELAH TZURASO- the form of which disintegrated

20)[last line]שלדו קיימתSHILDO KAYEMES- its remains (which are mostly ashes) have retained the shape of the body

21)[last line]טמאו לו פתחים גדוליםTIM'U LO PESACHIM GEDOLIM (TUM'AS MES: OHEL: SOF TUM'AH LATZES)

(a)If a Mes (corpse) is in a house and its door is closed, not only is the Mes Metamei (with Tum'as Ohel) all that is in the house, but it is also Metamei articles lying outside the closed door, in the doorway (i.e. under the lintel). The reason for this Tum'ah is that the Mes will eventually be removed from the house through that doorway, therefore the doorway is considered already Tamei [mid'Rabanan (RASHI to Beitzah 10a), or through a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai (RASHI to Beitzah 37b)]. If the house has a number of doorways and windows that are larger than 4 X 4 Tefachim, all objects that are in all of the doorways or windows on the other side of the closed doors or windows are Teme'im, since we do not know through which one the Mes will be removed.

(b)If a k'Zayis of a Mes is in a house that has a number of doorways and windows that are all closed, even objects on the other side of windows that are less than 4 X 4 Tefachim are Teme'im.

(c)If the owner of the house chooses to remove the Mes through a particular doorway or window, all the objects that are on the other side of all the other closed windows or doors are Tehorim. If an entire corpse (or a piece of a corpse that was larger than a k'Zayis) was in the house, the owner must have in mind to remove the Mes through a doorway or window that is at least 4 X 4 Tefachim in order for all the objects that are on the other side of all the other closed exits to be Tahor.

(d)If a k'Zayis of a Mes was in the house, even if the owner has in mind to remove it through one of the windows that is only 1 X 1 Tefach, all the objects that are on the other side of all the other closed exits are Tehorim.