[17a - 55 lines; 17b - 28 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi.

[1] Rashi 17a DH she'Avar Aleihen ha'Lailah ד"ה שעבר עליהן הלילה:

The words "u'Vatzal u'Mashkin" ובצל ומשקין

should be "u'Vatzal u'Veitzah u'Mashkin" ובצל וביצה ומשקין

[2] Mishnah 17b [line 2]:

"ha'Prozdor" הפרוזדור

Tosfos brings a Girsa of "Prozdud" in the entire Sugya; this is also the Girsa of the Rambam (Frankel edition)

[3] Rashi 17b DH Sefeiko Tamei (#2) : ד"ה ספיקו טמא

(a) The words "Azil bi'Prozdor" אזיל ברוזדור

should probably be "Azil b'Gag Prozdor" אזיל בגג פרוזדור

(b) "mi'Tzad Achoreha" מצד אחוריה refers to the bottom of the Prozdor; פרוזדור "mi'Tzad Paneha" מצד פניה refers to the roof of the Prozdor

[4] Rashi DH Min ha'Lul vela'Chutz ד"ה מן הלול ולחוץ:

The words "Vadai Tahor" ודאי טהור

should be "u'Vadai Tahor" וודאי טהור


1a)[line 6]"... שבו לכם פה עם החמור ...""… SHEVU LACHEM POH IM HA'CHAMOR..."- "[And Avraham said to his young men,] 'Stay here with the donkey; [and I and the lad will go there and worship, and come back to you.']" (Bereishis 22:5)

b)[line 18]עם הדומה לחמורAM HA'DOMEH L'CHAMOR

(a)Literally, "Am ha'Domeh l'Chamor" means people who are comparable to the donkey. This phrase is used to describe slaves, and Chazal mean to say that a slave is dealt with Halachically as property rather than as an individual.

(b)Similarly, the people of "Beis Peloni" had relations while their slaves were present, since they considered them mere property and not individuals.

2)[line 7]מקרקש זגי דכילתאMEKARKESH ZAGEI D'CHILASA- (a) he would ring the bells of the canopy surrounding his bed (RASHI); (b) according to the Girsa "MEKARKESH GAZEI D'CHILASA - he would chase away the (1) locusts (RASHI to Bechoros 7b), or (2) flying insects (TOSFOS to Bechoros 7b) that were around his bed

3a)[line 8]באלי דידביBALEI DIDVEI- would drive away the flies

b)[line 8]באלי פרוחיBALEI PERUCHEI- would drive away the mosquitoes

4)[line 15]מנחי בסילתא ומציירי וחתימיMANCHEI B'SILTA U'METZAIREI V'CHASIMEI- they are placed in a basket and are bound and sealed

5a)[line 17]עיקרןIKARAN- the hair-like roots

b)[line 17]קליפתןKELIPASAN- their peels

6)[line 21]כלי נתרKLEI NESER- (a) and utensils made from the crystals of alum (RASHI to Shabbos 16a); (b) utensils stuck together with alum (ARUCH). Neser is a kind of soil or stone that resembles chalk (O.F. nitre) (from natron, native carbonate of soda)

7)[line 23]הלן בבית הקברות כדי שתשרה עליו רוח טומאהHA'LAN B'VEI HA'KEVAROS KEDEI SHE'TISHREH ALAV RU'ACH TUM'AH- and one who spends the night in a cemetery so that the spirit of Tum'ah should rest upon him [by befriending the demons of the cemetery, who will aid him in sorcery — RASHI to Sanhedrin 65b]

8)[line 25]זימנין דמסכנין ליהZIMNIM D'MESAKNIN LEI- sometimes they endanger him

9)[line 28]גנוסטריGENUSTEREI- nail scissors

10)[line 29]גז מידי בתרייהוGAZ MIDI BASRAIHU- he cuts something after them

11)[line 31]חסידCHASID- a person who has raised himself to a level where he is meticulous in keeping Mitzvos and he does them naturally

12)[line 31]צדיקTZADIK- a person who is meticulous in keeping Mitzvos but has to wage a constant battle with his Yetzer ha'Ra to do so

13)[line 32]ויתקיןVISKIN- he is weakly

14)[line 33]בעלי ראתןBA'ALEI RA'ASAN- a disease associated with extreme weakness (meningitis?)

15)[line 41]מילא פרהבאMILA PARHAVA- (O.F. coton) cotton

16)[line 45]פקוליןPEKULIN- (a) cotton (RASHI); (b) clean flax (ARUCH)

17)[line 46]פקולי בנהמאPEKULEI B'NAHAMA- cotton/flax for [performing Bedikos before and after] relations (lit. bread — see Bereishis 39:6)

18)[line 47]שחקי דכיתנאSHACHAKEI D'KISNA- pieces of worn-out flaxen garments

19)[line 49]מאני דכיתנאMANEI D'KISNA- flaxen garments

20)[line 53]נטהר מקצתו, נטהר כולוNIT'HAR MIKTZASO, NIT'HAR KULO (HASHAKAH)

(a)When one sinks a container containing water (or snow) that is Tamei into a valid Mikvah such that the water of the Mikvah flows over the rim of the container and touches the water (or snow) inside of the container, the water inside of the container becomes Tahor. By touching the waters of the Mikvah, the contents of the container have become "attached" or "planted" in the Tahor waters of the Mikvah, making the contents of the container Tehorim as well. This can be compared to the manner in which seeds that are Teme'im can become Tehorim by being planted in the ground (RASHI to Beitzah 17a DH v'Shavin; Gemara Pesachim 34b).

(b)Hashakah in a Mikvah can only be Metaher water (or snow), not other foods or liquids. The reason for this is that when Tamei water is touched to waters of a Mikvah, since they are the same material, the former can be considered to be "planted in," i.e. fully attached to, the latter. Any other material cannot become one with the waters of the Mikvah, and therefore it cannot become Tahor through Hashakah (RASHI to Nidah 17a DH Nit'har).


21)[line 1]אפילו מלא חרדלAFILU MALEI CHARDAL (TUM'AS KLEI CHERES)

(a)Klei Cheres are clay and earthenware utensils. They do not receive Tum'ah when an object of Tum'ah touches their outside. They only become Teme'im when Tum'ah enters them (even if the Tum'ah does not touch them). Therefore, when they are covered with a Tzamid Pesil (a tight seal) they cannot become Teme'im in the Ohel of a Mes, as is stated in Bamidbar 19:15. However, if the utensils are moved ("Tum'as Heset") by a Zav, Zavah, Nidah or Yoledes, they do receive Tum'ah (see Background to Nidah 7:5). If Klei Cheres become Teme'im, they make any food or drink items that enter them Teme'im, even if the items did not touch their inside surface.

(b)If the clay and earthenware utensils become Teme'im, they remain so until they are broken beyond use. Immersing them in a Mikvah does not change their status.

(c)For a further discussion of the principles of Tum'os and Taharos, see Background to Nazir 54:13 and Insights to Pesachim 14:1.

22a)[line 2]החדרHA'CHEDER- the uterus (RASHI; RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos and Hilchos Isurei Bi'ah 5)

b)[line 2]הפרוזדורHA'PROZDOR- (a) and the cervical canal and vagina (RASHI); (b) the cervical canal (RAMBAM)

c)[line 2]העלייהHA'ALIYAH- (a) and a duct alongside the top of the uterus and cervix (RASHI); (b) the uterine (fallopian) tubes (which lead to the ovaries) (RAMBAM); see Insights to Nidah 17:2

23)[line 9]לולLUL- and a small opening

24a)[line 16]שחתהSHACHASAH- she bent over forwards

b)[line 17]אזדקרהIZDAKRAH- she bent backwards

25a)[line 18]בתר חששא אזלתBASAR CHASHASHA AZLAS- we take into account all possible occurrences

b)[line 19]בתר חזקה אזלתBASAR CHAZAKAH AZLAS- we consider only the normal pattern of the flow of the blood


(a)It is forbidden for a person to enter the Mikdash (see Background to Tamid 27:27 for a discussion of the boundaries of the various areas in the Mikdash) if he touched an Av ha'Tumah (Bamidbar 5:2).

(b)Regarding a person who becomes Tamei the verse states, "b'Chol Kodesh Lo Siga" - "... she (a woman after childbirth) shall touch no consecrated thing" (Vayikra 12:4), from which the Gemara (Yevamos 75a, Makos 14b) derives that it is forbidden for a person who is Tamei to eat Kodshim. If a person who is Tamei eats the blood of Kodshim, he does not transgress this prohibition.

(c)One who transgresses these prohibitions b'Shogeg (unintentionally) becomes obligated to bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored (see Background to Kerisus 2:10). If he transgresses them b'Mezid (intentionally) and witnesses saw him and he was warned (Hasra'ah) not to transgress, he is punished with Malkus (lashes). If he was not warned, he is punished with Kares (Vayikra 12:4, 22:3-4, Bamidbar 5:3, 19:20) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #167).

27)[line 22]שורפין עליו את התרומהSORFIN ALAV ES HA'TERUMAH - and we burn Terumah because of it (the blood that was found in the Perozdor, if the woman then touched Terumah) (TERUMAH)

(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.

(b)A non-Kohen may not eat Terumah or Terumas Ma'aser. Even Kohanim and their families and slaves may not eat Terumah unless they and the Terumah are Tehorim (ritually pure).

(c)If Terumah becomes Teme'ah, it may not be eaten, as the Torah states, "b'Chol Kodesh Lo Siga" (Vayikra 12:4). In addition, there is a Mitzvah to burn it (Shabbos 25a). The Rishonim argue whether this is a Mitzvah d'Oraisa or a Mitzvah d'Rabanan (see Background to Shabbos 23:44). The Kohanim may benefit from it while it is being burned, such as by using it as fuel for a fire (Shabbos 25b).