NEDARIM 89 (6 Elul) - Dedicated in memory of Rivka bas Yechezkel Pinker, who passed away on 6 Elul 5767, on the occasion of her Yahrzeit. Sponsored by her children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren, all of whom live in Eretz Yisrael.

1)

ONE WHOSE STATUS CHANGED AFTER SHE VOWED (Yerushalmi Perek 11 Halachah 9 Daf 39a)

מתני' [במדבר ל י] ונדר אלמנה וגרושה כל אשר אסרה על נפשה יקום עליה כיצד

(a)

(Mishnah) Question: "V'Neder Almanah u'Gerushah Kol Asher Asrah Al Nafshah Yakum Aleha" - how is this?

אמרה הרי אני נזירה לאחר שלשי' יום ואף על פי שנישאת בתוך שלשים יום אינו יכול להפר נדרה

(b)

Answer: If [a single girl] said 'I will be a Nezirah after 30 days', even if she married within the 30 days, [her husband] cannot annul her vow.

והיא ברשות הבעל והיפר לה אמרה הרי אני נזירה לאחר שלשים יום אף על פי שנתאלמנה או נתגרשה בתוך שלשים יום הרי זה מופר

(c)

If she vowed while married, and he annulled her vow - [e.g.] she said 'I will be a Nezirah after 30 days' (and he annulled it), even if she was widowed or divorced in the 30 days, it is annulled.

נדרה בו ביום נתגרשה בו ביום והחזירה בו ביום אינו יכול להפר

(d)

If she vowed, was divorced, and he remarried her on the same day, he cannot annul.

זה הכלל כל שיצאת לרשות עצמה שעה אחת אינו יכול להפר:

1.

The rule is - if she entered her own Reshus for a moment, he cannot annul.

גמ' הדא היא רבי ישמעאל אומר אחרי הנדר. רבי עקיבה אומר אחר האיסר.

(e)

(Gemara): This [depends on] the argument of R. Yishmael and R. Akiva. R. Akiva, it depends on [the time that she said] the Isur. R. Yishmael says, it law depends on the Neder (when it takes effect. Our Mishnah is like R. Akiva.)

היה נדר ואסר כאחת.

(f)

Question: If the Neder [takes effect] and the Isur [was said] like one (in the same status, what is the law)?

היך עבידא.

1.

Question: What is the case?

אמרה הריני נזירה לאחר שלשים יום ושמע בעלה ולא היפר לה וגירשה והחזירה בתוך שלשים יום היינו נדר ואיסר כאחת:

2.

Answer: She said 'I will be a Nazir after 30 days', and her husband heard and did not annul, and he divorced her and remarried her within 30 days. The Neder and the Isur are like one.

i.

Note: According to R. Akiva, it depends on when she said the Isur. He did not annul then, so he cannot annul now. We ask according to R. Yishmael. In the Reisha of our Mishnah, he permits Hafarah when she said the vow before marriage. Perhaps here is worse, for divorce is like Kiyum. We cannot learn from the Seifa (if she entered her own Reshus for a moment, he cannot annul), for that is when the vow already took effect. We explained based on PNEI MOSHE, but he connotes that we ask also according to R. Akiva.)

2)

GIRLS WHOSE VOWS CANNOT BE ANNULLED (Yerushalmi Perek 11 Halachah 10 Daf 39a)

מתני' תשע נערות נדריהן קיימין

(a)

(Mishnah): There are nine cases of girls whose vows are sustained:

בוגרת והיא יתומה

1.

A Bogeres [vowed], and she is an orphan [in her father's lifetime, i.e. she was fully married, and left her father's Reshus, and was widowed or divorced. Also the next two cases discuss such orphans];

נערה בוגרת ויתומה

2.

A Na'arah [vowed], became a Bogeres, and she is an orphan;

נערה שלא בגרה ויתומה

3.

A Na'arah did not become a Bogeres, and she is an orphan;

בוגרת ומת אביה

4.

A Bogeres [vowed], and her father died;

נערה שלא בגרה ומת אביה

5.

A Na'arah did not become a Bogeres, and her father died;

נערה בוגרת ומת אביה

6.

A Na'arah became a Bogeres, and her father died;

נערה שמת אביה משמת אביה בגרה

7.

A Na'arah [vowed], her father died, and after her father died, she became a Bogeres;

בוגרת ואביה קיים

8.

A Bogeres, and her father is alive;

נערה בוגרת ואביה קיים

9.

A Na'arah [vowed and] became a Bogeres, and her father is alive;

ר' יהודה אומר אף המשיא את בתו קטנה ונתאלמנה או נתגרשה וחזרה אצלו עדיין היא נערה:

(b)

R. Yehudah says, even if her father married her off when she was a minor, she was widowed or divorced, and she returned to her father, she still is (like) a Na'arah (her father can annul her vows).

גמ' אמר רבי יוחנן שתים הן ולמה תנינן תשע.

(c)

(Gemara - R. Yochanan) Question: There are only two cases (a Bogeres, and an orphan, which includes a real orphan and an orphan in her father's lifetime). Why did our Mishnah teach nine?

בשביל לחדד את התלמידים.

(d)

Answer: It was in order to sharpen the Talmidim.

וכר' יודה שלש:

(e)

And according to R. Yehudah, there are three. (He holds that an orphan in her father's lifetime is only if she was married in adulthood, therefore she is unlike a real orphan, so this case is counted separately - CHASAM SOFER 89a.)

3)

A VOW DEPENDENT ON WORK (Yerushalmi Perek 11 Halachah 11 Daf 39b)

[דף לט עמוד ב] מתני' קונם שאיני נהנית לאבא ולאביך אם עושה אני על פיך שאיני נהנית לך אם עושה אני על פי אבא ועל פי אביך הרי זה יפר:

(a)

(Mishnah): If a woman vowed to her husband 'I am forbidden to benefit from my father or your father if I work for you'; or, 'I am forbidden to benefit from you if I work for my father or your father', he can annul it.

גמ' תני רבי נתן אומר לא יפר.

(b)

(Gemara - Beraisa - R. Nasan): He cannot annul;

וחכמים אומרים יפר.

(c)

Chachamim say, he can annul.

מפני מה הוא מיפר

(d)

Question: Why can he annul?

חברייא אמרי מפני עינוי נפש שלו.

(e)

Answer #1 (Talmidim): It is due to his Inuy Nefesh (i.e. matters between him and her, for it is a disgrace for him).

רבי זעירא ורבי הילא תריהון אמרין מפני נדרי עינוי נפש שלה:

(f)

Answer #2 (R. Ze'ira and R. Heila): It is due to her Inuy Nefesh. (We explained this like PNEI MOSHE.)

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