NEDARIM 77 - Dedicated by Mrs. G. Kornfeld for the Yahrzeit of her mother, Mrs. Gisela Turkel (Golda bas Chaim Yitzchak Ozer), on 25 Av. Mrs. Turkel was an exceptional woman with an iron will who loved and respected the study of Torah.


RESTRICTIONS OF HAFARAH AND HATARAH (Yerushalmi Perek 10 Halachah 8 Daf 34b)

תמן תנינן מפירין נדרים בשבת.


(Mishnah): We may annul vows [of a wife or daughter] on Shabbos.

תני בין נדרים שהן לצורך השבת בין נדרים שאין לצורך השבת ונשאלין נדרים שהן לצורך השבת.


(Beraisa): This is both vows [about something] needed for Shabbos, and vows not needed for Shabbos. We may ask [a Chacham to permit] vows needed for Shabbos.

הא שלא לצורך השבת לא. זקן שהוא יכול להפר למחר


Inference: What is not needed for Shabbos, no, for a Chacham can permit it tomorrow.

[דף לה עמוד א] וכרבי יוסי בי רבי יודה וכרבי לעזר בי רבי שמעון דאמר הפר נדרים מעת לעת. אפילו נדרים שהן לצורך השבת לא יפר.


Remark: According to R. Yosi bei Rebbi Yehudah and R. Lazar bei R. Shimon, who say that Hafaras Nedarim is me'Es la'Es, even Nedarim not needed for Shabbos, he cannot annul. (I.e. not only one cannot permit such Nedarim, one cannot even annul them, for he can annul after Shabbos.)

תיפתר דברי הכל שנדרה בתחילת לילי שבת.


Retraction: We can say that [the Beraisa] is like everyone; she vowed at the beginning of Shabbos night. (He cannot annul after Shabbos, for 24 hours will have passed.)

רבי אבהו בשם רבי יוחנן הבעל שאמר אין כאן נדר אין כאן שבועה לא אמר כלום. וזקן שאמר מופר ליך בטל ליך לא אמר כלום.


(R. Avahu citing R. Yochanan): If a husband said 'there is no vow here' or 'there is no Shevu'ah here', it has no effect (these are expressions of Hataras Chacham, and not of Hafaras Ba'al). If a Chacham said 'it is Mufar (annulled) for you', it is Batel for you', it has no effect (these are expressions of Hafarah, and not of Hatarah);

אלא זה כהלכתו וזה כהלכתו הבעל אמר מופר ליך בטל ליך. והזקן אומר אין כאן נדר אין כאן שבועה.


Rather, this one must [permit] like his law, and this one must [permit] like his law. A husband says 'Mufar for you' or 'Batel for you', and a Chacham says 'there is no vow here' or 'there is no Shevu'ah here.'

אמר רבי יוחנן ראשונים היו נשאלין מהו שישאל אדם על הקמתו.


Question (R. Yochanan): Early Chachamim were asked, may one ask to permit his Kiyum?

היך עבידא


Question: What is the case?

נדרה אשה ושמע בעלה ולא היפר לה פשיטא שאינו מיפר לה לעניין הבעל מהו שיפר לה לעניין הזקן


If a woman vowed, and her husband heard and did not annul [that day, which is like Kiyum], obviously he cannot annul for her as a husband. Can he permit for her like a Chacham (if he is a Chacham)?

מה אנן קיימין


Question: What is the case?

אם בנדרים שבינו לבינה נדרי עצמו הן.


If they are vows between him and her, this is like his owns vows! (Surely he cannot permit them like a Chacham!)

אלא כי נן קיימין בנדרים שבינה לבין אחרים.


Answer: Rather, they are vows [of Inuy Nefesh] between her and others. (If they are not of Inuy Nefesh, a husband cannot annul them, and also Kiyum does not apply! - PF)

ולא ר' יודה היא


Question: (What was the question to early Chachamim?) Is it not R. Yehudah [who says that a Chacham cannot permit his wife's vows between her and others, and Chachamim permit - Nega'im 2:5]?!

תני בשם ר' יודה ר' חייה תני לה בשם חכמים.


Answer: [Our text of that Mishnah] taught 'R. Yehudah'. R. Chiyah taught so in the name of Chachamim. (They asked which text is correct.)

מהו להתיר נדרים בלילה.


Question: May [a Chacham] permit vows at night? (Perhaps this is like judgment, which is during the day.)

ומה אם נדר הבעל שכתוב בהן ביום הרי הוא מיפר בלילה נדרי זקן שאין כתוב בהן ביום לא כ"ש.


Answer: A husband's [Hafarah of a] Neder, about which it says "b'Yom", he can annul at night. A Chacham's [Hatarah of] Nedarim, about which it does not say b'Yom, all the more so [he can permit at night]!

מהו להתיר על ידי התורגמן.


Question: May [a Chacham] permit through a translator?

נישמעינה מן הדא ר' בא בר זוטרא איתעביד תורגמן דרבי יוחנן בחדא איתא דלא הוות חכמה מישמע (סוריבטי') [צ"ל סוריסטון - ר"ן ח:ב]


Answer: We learn from the following. R. Ba bar Zutra was a translator for R. Yochanan for a woman who did not understand [Leshon ha'Kodesh, or even] Arame'ic.

תני אין נשאלין נדרים אלא עטופים (ויושבים - אינו בדפוס ויניציה) והנשאל יושב.


(Beraisa): We ask [to permit vows] only [from Chachamim] cloaked (the way judges judge), and the [Chacham] who is asked, he sits.

והשואל צריך להיות עומד מן הדין ועמדו שני האנשים אשר להם (ריב) [צ"ל הריב].


The one who asks must stand. We learn from this verse - "v'Amdu Shnei ha'Anashim Asher Lahem ha'Riv";

אין לי עומדין אלא נידונין שואל הלכות אגדות מניין


Question: This teaches only about litigants. What is the source for one who asks Halachos and Agados?

תלמוד לומר עמדו ועמדו.


Answer: [The Torah could have written] 'Amdu'. [Rather, it wrote] "v'Amdu" [to teach also about Halachos and Agados].

ר' אחא בר פפא סלק מישרי נדרא דרבי אימי איחר בעמידה כדי לומר אין כאן נדר


Rav Acha bar Papa went to permit the vow of R. Imi. [R. Imi] delayed while standing in order [for Rav Acha bar Papa] to say 'there is no vow here.' (This is the minimum time that he must stand.)


Note: We find that Rav Nachman stood when Rav Huna's wife came for judgment, for a Chacham's wife is like her husband. R. Imi (the Bavli calls him R. Ami) was the greatest Kohen of Eretz Yisrael (Megilah 22a, Tosfos Bava Basra 34a), so Rav Acha bar Papa needed to stand for him. Therefore, R. Imi stood for the minimum time necessary; if not, it is l'Chatchilah to stand the entire time. (PF)

רבי מנא סלק מישרי נדרא דגמליאל דקונתיה איחר בעמידה כדי לומר אין כאן נדר אין כאן שבועה.


R. Mana went to permit the vow of Gamliel of Kuntiyah. [Gamliel] delayed while standing in order to say 'there is no vow here, there is no Shevu'ah here.' (Perhaps R. Mana stood for him, for Gamliel was older, therefore he stood for the minimum time.)

רבי מנא סלק מישרי נדרא דגמליאל בר בריה אמר ליה לא תיעביד לי כמה דעבדת לסבי אלא תיב לך ואנא קיים לי.


R. Mana went to permit the vow of Gamliel, his grandson. [Gamliel] told him 'do not do to me like you did to my grandfather! Rather, sit, and I will stand.' (Gamliel was concerned lest R. Mana fear that if he does not stand for him, like he stood for his grandfather, he will be insulted. Therefore, he told him 'do not stand for me at all! The entire time, I will stand and you will sit, for this is l'Chatchilah.' I explained this based on RIDVAZ, with additions.)