GROUNDS FOR PERMISSION
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): We can be Pose'ach (suggest that a vow was mistaken, which is grounds to permit it) by suggesting that the vow disgraces his parents;
Chachamim forbid this;
R. Tzadok: Rather than suggesting the disgrace to his parents, we should suggest the disgraces to Hash-m!
Chachamim: If so, there are no vows!
Chachamim agree with R. Eliezer when the vow forbids his parents.
R. Eliezer says, we can permit vows using Nolad (subsequent unexpected developments);
The following cases are Nolad:
Reuven vowed not to benefit from Ploni, and Ploni became the scribe of the town, or Ploni was about to marry off his son (and Reuven wants to attend);
Reuven says, had I known that he would become the scribe, or would marry off his son in the near future, I would not have vowed;
One said 'it is forbidden for me to enter this house', and it became a synagogue;
Had he known that it would become a synagogue, he would not have vowed;
R. Eliezer permits such cases, and Chachamim forbid.
(Gemara) Question: What does it mean '(if so,) there are no vows'?
Answer #1 (Abaye): If so, vows are not permitted properly;
Answer #2 (Rava): If so, people will permit their own vows without going to a Chacham.
Question (Mishnah): Chachamim agree with R. Eliezer when the vow forbids his parents.
Granted, according to Abaye, he initially wanted to anger his parents, and now he regrets this.
According to Rava, here also, we should be concerned lest people permit their own vows without going to a Chacham!
Answer: Since people know that other vows can be permitted only by a Chacham, they will go to a Chacham also for this type of vow.
PERMITTING THROUGH NOLAD
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): We can be Pose'ach using Nolad...
Question: What is R. Eliezer's reason?
Answer (Rav Chisda): (Moshe had sworn to Yisro that he would not leave him, for he feared Dasan and Aviram. Hash-m told Moshe that he can annul his vow,) "for all the men have died..." Death is Nolad!
Question: Why do Chachamim argue?
Answer: Chachamim say that they did not really die:
(R. Yochanan): Wherever the Torah discusses men Nitzim and Nitzavim (quarreling and standing), it refers to Dasan and Aviram. (It was they who quarreled and informed on Moshe, and they lived until Korach's rebellion!)
(Reish Lakish): (Hash-m said that they died because) they became poor.
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Anyone without children is considered to be dead. (Rachel said) "Give to me children. If not, I am dead."
(Beraisa): Four people are considered like dead: a poor person, a Metzora, a blind person and a childless person.
We learn about a poor person from "for all the men have died";
We learn about a Metzora from "do not let her (Miryam) be like dead";
We learn about a blind person from "In darkness he sat me, like the dead";
We learn about a childless person from "Give to me children, If not, I am dead."