ONE WHO VOWED NOT TO EAT FROM HIS FRIEND
(Mishnah): Shimon may not lend to Levi (a sifter...)
Question: Why can't he lend to these things? The vow forbids only eating from him!
Answer #1 (Reish Lakish): The case is, Levi said 'benefit from your food is forbidden to me.'
Objection: (This does not explain why he cannot lend Kelim.) This connotes that Levi cannot get any benefit from Shimon's food, e.g. to use chewed wheat to cure a wound on his foot! (Tosfos - if Shimon chewed Levi's wheat, even this is forbidden.)
Answer #2 (Rava): The case is, he said 'benefit (from you) that leads to (your - this is not in the text of the Rishonim) food is forbidden to me.'
(Rav Papa): A sack or donkey to bring produce, or even a basket, is considered benefit that leads to food.
Questions (Rav Papa): May he lend to him a horse to ride on or a ring to wear? May Levi walk through Shimon's property? (These will help Levi to get to food, or to look distinguished and get a nicer portion.)
Answer (Mishnah): He may lend to him a cloak and rings.
Question: What is the case?
If Levi will not get a better portion because he is wearing them, obviously, Shimon may lend them to him!
Answer: Rather, Levi will get a better portion, and still, Shimon may lend them!
Rejection: No. Really, Levi will not get a better portion;
The Reisha taught Kelim that he may not lend to him, so the Seifa teaches Kelim that he may lend to him, even though it is obvious.
(Mishnah): He may not lend to him any Kli not used for food, in a place where such Kelim are rented.
(Gemara) Inference: The Kelim listed in the Reisha may not be lent even where they are not rented (but are lent for free). Which Tana forbids this?
Answer (Rav Ada bar Ahavah): It is R. Eliezer (who forbids Vitur).
WHICH BENEFITS ARE PERMITTED?
(Mishnah): If Reuven is Mudar Hana'ah from Shimon, Shimon may give the half-Shekel (that every person must give to Hekdesh each year for Korbanos) on behalf of Reuven, he may pay Reuven's debt, and he may return Reuven's Aveidah (something he lost);
In a place where people pay for returning Aveidos (compensation for wages that the finder lost while occupied with the Aveidah), the money goes to Hekdesh.
(Gemara) Inference: These benefits must be considered like mere prevention of damage. This is why they are permitted.
Question: Which Tana holds like this?
Answer #1 (Rav Hoshaya): It is Chanan (brought below);
Answer #2 (Rava): The Mishnah can even be like Chachamim;
The Mishnah permits paying a debt that was given on condition that the lender may not press the borrower for payment.
Question: Which teaching of Chanan does Rav Hoshaya refer to?
Answer (Mishnah - Chanan): If Yehudah went overseas and Levi fed Yehudah's wife, he is not reimbursed;
The sons of Kohanim Gedolim and R. Dosa say that Levi swears how much he gave to her, and he is reimbursed;
R. Yochanan ben Zakai: Chanan is correct. Levi threw away his money.
Rava did not answer like Rav Hoshaya, for he prefers to establish the Mishnah like everyone.
Rav Hoshaya did not answer like Rava. We would decree to forbid paying such a debt, lest he pay a normal debt.
RETURNING AN AVEIDAH
(Mishnah): He may return his Aveidah...
Version #1 (R. Ami or R. Asi): Shimon may return to Reuven (the Mudar). Shimon does not give to him anything. He merely returns Reuven's property to him.
Reuven may not return Shimon's Aveidah, for Reuven would save money due to Shimon, like Rav Yosef taught. (One who is engaged in returning or caring for an Aveidah is engaged in a Mitzvah, therefore he is exempt from giving Tzedakah.)
(The other of R. Ami and R. Asi): Even Reuven may return to Shimon. It is rare that one saves money through Rav Yosef's law.