NEDARIM AND NEDAVOS OF TZADIKIM
Answer #2 (to Question 2:b, Daf 9a): Our Mishnah is like R. Yehudah. He meant that a Nedavah that is fulfilled is better than not vowing at all. He did not say so about a Neder.
Question (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Better than both of these, is to be Noder and fulfill it.
Answer: It should say "better... is to be Nodev and fulfill it."
Question: Surely, it is better not to take a Neder lest one transgress it. The same concern applies to Nedavos!
Answer: R. Yehudah holds that one brings his animal to the Mikdash, makes it Hekdesh and immediately offers it (so there is no concern lest one benefit from it).
Question: This answers for Nedavos of Korbanos. How can we explain Nedavos of Nezirus?
Answer (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Early Chasidim yearned to be able to bring a Chatas, since (they never needed to bring one due to sin, for) Hash-m does not bring mishaps through them. They would accept a Nedavah of Nezirus, in order to bring a Chatas (at the end of Nezirus);
R. Shimon says, they did not become Nezirim. One may bring Olah, Shelamim or Todah and its four types of bread for Nedavah, but not Nezirus, for a Nazir is called a sinner - "me'Asher Chata Al ha'Nefesh."
(Abaye): Shimon ha'Tzadik, R. Shimon and R. Elazar ha'Kafar b'Ribi all hold similarly, that a Nazir is a sinner. We already taught about Shimon ha'Tzadik (he considered only one Nazir to be a proper Nazir la'Shem) and R. Shimon. The following teaches about R. Elazar ha'Kafar:
(Beraisa - R. Elazar ha'Kafar) Question: "Me'Asher Chata Al ha'Nefesh" - against whom did the Nazir sin?
Answer: He sinned against himself, by denying himself wine. If one who denies himself one matter is called a sinner, all the more so, one who fasts and denies himself everything!
Question: "Me'Asher Chata Al ha'Nefesh" is written regarding a Nazir Tamei! (His sin was becoming Tamei!)
Answer: (It applies to all Nezirim.) It was written regarding a Nazir Tamei because he sinned twice (denying himself wine, and becoming Tamei. Alternatively, he must begin Nezirus anew and pain himself again.)
(Mishnah): The following are Kinuyim (substitute words) for Korban. Konam, Konach, and Konas;
Cherek, Cherech, Cheref are Kinuyim for Cherem.
Nazik, Nazi'ach, and Pazi'ach are Kinuyim for Nezirus.
Shevusah, Shekukah, or vowing 'b'Mohi' are Kinuyim for Shevu'ah.
(Gemara - R. Yochanan): Kinuyim are (translations of Korban or Cherem...) from Nochri languages;
(Reish Lakish): Chachamim concocted them for people to use when vowing.
Question: Why did they concoct them?
Answer: They did not want people to say "Korban".'
Question: What is wrong with saying "Korban"?
Answer: One might come to say "Korban la'Shem."
Question: What's wrong with saying that?
Answer: Perhaps he will say only "la'Shem" without "Korban," and his mention of Hash-m's Name was in vain:
(Beraisa - R. Shimon) Question: What is the source that one shouldn't say "la'Shem Olah", or "(la'Shem) Minchah", "Todah" or "Shelamim"?
Answer: It says "Korban la'Shem".
The Torah was particular about one who says Hash-m's Name to be Makdish a Korban (to guard against saying His Name in vain). All the more so, one may not intentionally say it in vain!
Suggestion: R. Yochanan and Reish Lakish argue like the following Tana'im:
(Beraisa - Beis Shamai): Kinuyim of Kinuyim are binding.
Beis Hillel say, they are not binding.
Suggestion: Beis Shamai hold that they are from Nochri languages (and also Kinuyei Kinuyim are used to denote Korban or Cherem...) Beis Hillel hold that Chachamim concocted Kinuyim, but not Kinuyei Kinuyim.
Rejection #1: All agree that Kinuyim are from Nochri languages. Beis Shamai hold that Nochrim also use Kinuyei Kinuyim, and Beis Hillel hold that they do not.
Rejection #2: They argue about whether or not we decree to forbid one who vowed with Kinuy Kinuyim.
EXAMPLES OF KINUYEI KINUYIM
Question: What are Kinuyei Kinuyim of Nedarim?
Answer (Rav Yosef - Beraisa): Mekanmena, Mekanchana and Mekansana are Kinuyei Kinuyim (for Korban).
(Mafsha'ah - Beraisa): Charakim, Charachim and Charafim are Kinuyei Kinuyim for Cherem.
(Rav Yosef - Beraisa): Mechazkana, Menazchana and Mafichna are Kinuyei Kinuyim for Nezirus.
Question: Are Mifchazna, Mischazna, and Misazna Kinuyei Kinuyim?
Question (Ravina): If one said 'Kinma', does he refer to Konam, or to Kinman Besem (cinnamon)?
Question (Rav Acha brei d'Rav Chiya): If one said 'Kinah', does this refer to a chickens' nest, or to Konam?
These questions are not resolved.
Question: What are Kinuyei Kinuyim of Shevu'ah?
Answer: They are Shevuel, Shevusiel, and Shekukel.
Objection: Shevuel is a name, of the son of Gershsom (Divrei ha'Yamim 1:23:16)!
Answer: Rather, 'Shevuva'el' is a Kinuy Kinuy.
(Shmuel): If one said 'Ashivta', 'Ashkika', or 'Karinsha', it has no effect.
(Mishnah): Vowing 'b'Mohi' is a Kinuy for Shevu'ah.
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel) If one said (only) "b'Mohi" (a nickname for Moshe), it has no effect;
If he said "the Mumsa (oath) of Mohi", it is a Kinuy for a Shevu'ah. (Our Mishnah discusses this.)
SAYING THAT SOMETHING IS LIKE CHOL OR LIKE KODESH
(Mishnah): The following forbid: if one said 'l'Chulin (is) what I will eat from you', or 'not Kosher', 'not Tahor', 'Tahor', 'Tamei', 'Nosar', or 'Pigul';
The following forbid like a Korban - if one said 'like Imra (a lamb)', 'like pens (of animals)', 'like wood', 'like (things that go on the) fires', 'like the Mizbe'ach', 'like the Heichal', or 'like Yerushalayim';
R. Yehudah says, saying 'Yerushalayim' does not forbid at all.