LANGUAGES IN WHICH SEFORIM, TEFILIN AND MEZUZOS MAY BE WRITTEN (cont.)
Answer #1 (Rava): The Beraisa disqualifies other languages when the letters are not Ashuris.
Objection (Abaye): If so, why did the Beraisa mention Mikra that was written Targum, or vice versa? Even if Mikra was written Mikra and Targum was written Targum, it is not Metamei hands unless it is written Ashuris!
Answer #2 (Abaye): The Beraisa is like R. Shimon ben Gamliel.
Objection: If so, the Beraisa should permit also Yevanis!
Answer: The Beraisa discusses only Tefilin and Mezuzos.
Tefilin and Mezuzos must be in Hebrew, because it says "V'Hayu" - (the words will be) as they are.
Objection: The Beraisa mentioned Targum - where do we find this?
There is Targum in the Torah, i.e. "Yegar Sahadusa", but there is no Targum in Tefilin and Mezuzos!
Answer #3: The Beraisa discusses Megilas Esther.
The Megilah must be in Hebrew with Ashuris letters. We learn from "Ki'Chsavam vechi'Lshonam".
Question: What Targum is there in the Megilah?
Answer #1 (Rav Papa): "Pisgam of the king was heard" is Targum.
Answer #2 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): "All women will give Yekar to their husbands" is Targum.
Answer #4 (Rav Ashi): The Beraisa discusses other Seforim; it is like R. Yehudah.
(Beraisa): Tefilin and Mezuzos may only be written Ashuris; Raboseinu (R. Shimon ben Gamliel) permitted Yevanis.
Objection: It says "v'Hayu" (they must be in Hebrew)!
Correction (Beraisa): Seforim may be written in any language; Raboseinu permitted Yevanis.
Question: This implies that the first Tana forbids Yevanis (but in our Mishnah, Chachamim that argue with R. Shimon ben Gamliel permit all languages)!
Correction: The Beraisa should say 'Raboseinu permitted only Yevanis.'
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Raboseinu permitted Yevanis only regarding a Sefer Torah, because of the episode with King Tolmei.
THE TRANSLATION OF THE SEVENTY
(Beraisa): King Tolmei gathered 72 Chachamim and put them in 72 houses, without telling them why. He then asked each to translate the Torah into Yevanis.
Miraculously, every Chacham made the same (following) deviations from an accurate translation (lest the Yevanim find fault with the Torah or 'sources' for heresy).
"Elokim created in the beginning (lest it sound like 'Bereishis' created Elokim)";
"I will make man in an image and a form";
"He finished on the sixth day, and rested on the seventh";
"Male and female He created him";
"I will descend and confuse their language";
"Sarah laughed amidst her relatives"; (lest it seem that Sarah was criticized for the same reaction that Avraham had, and he was not criticized`).
"In their anger they killed an ox and uprooted a feeding trough" (lest Shimon and Levi seem like murderers);
"Moshe put his wife and children on the people carrier" (this suggests a horse or camel, which befits the dignity of our Rebbi more than a donkey);
"Benei Yisrael were in Mitzrayim and other lands 400 years";
"He sent the dignitaries of Benei Yisrael" (it sounds undignified to say that youths were sent to welcome the Shechinah);
"He did not stretch His hand to (strike) the dignitaries of Benei Yisrael" (to be consistent with the previous deviation);
"I did not take one desired item of theirs" (lest it sound like Moshe took things other than donkeys);
"That Hash-m apportioned to illuminate to the nations" (lest they say that Hash-m authorized Nochrim to worship stars);
"And he will serve other gods that I did not command to serve them" (lest it sound like they are autonomous);
"The small-footed animal" (Tolmei's wife was named Arneves. Had they not deviated, he would have thought that they were mocking him.)
SEFORIM MAY BE WRITTEN IN YEVANIS
(R. Avahu): The Halachah follows R. Shimon ben Gamliel.
(R. Yochanan): He learns from "Hash-m will be Yaft (beautify) Yefes and dwell in the tents of Shem" - the words (language) of Yefes (the father of Yavan) will be in the tents of Shem.
Question: Perhaps this refers to Gomer and Magog (other children of Yefes)!
Answer (R. Chiya bar Avin): "Yaft" refers to the most beautiful [language] of Yefes.
HALACHOS OF KOHANIM GEDOLIM
(Mishnah): The only difference between a Kohen Gadol anointed with Shemen ha'Mishchah and Merubeh Begadim (one who is sanctified only by wearing the extra garments), is the Par (bull) brought to atone for a sin (if the Kohen Gadol transgressed Kares because he erred in Halachah).
The only differences between a serving Kohen Gadol and Kohen she'Avar (he once substituted for the Kohen Gadol) are Par Yom Kipur and Asiris ha'Eifah (the Kohen Gadol's daily Minchah offering).
(Gemara) Inference: A Merubeh Begadim is like an anointed Kohen regarding Par Yom Kipur and Asiris ha'Eifah.
Our Mishnah is unlike R. Meir:
(Beraisa - R. Meir): A Merubeh Begadim brings a Par for a sin;
Chachamim say that he does not.
Question: What is R. Meir's reason?
Answer (Beraisa): 'Mashi'ach' teaches that an anointed Kohen Gadol brings a Par (for a sin); "ha'Mashi'ach teaches that even a Merubeh Begadim brings a Par.
Question: Our Mishnah is like R. Meir!
(Seifa): A Kohen she'Avar may serve.
(Beraisa - R. Meir): If there was a need to substitute for the Kohen Gadol, the first Kohen Gadol resumes service when he is fit, and all Halachos of a Kohen Gadol apply to the substitute;
R. Yosi says that the substitute cannot serve, not even like a regular Kohen.
It once happened that R. Yosef ben Ulam of Tzipori substituted for a Kohen Gadol who became Tamei. Chachamim said that R. Yosef cannot serve as a Kohen Gadol lest this cause enmity; he cannot serve as a regular Kohen, since we ascend in Kedushah but we do not descend.
(Culmination of the question): Is the Seifa R. Meir but the Reisha is not?!
Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): Yes!
Answer #2 (Rav Yosef): The Mishnah is Rebbi. He holds like R. Meir regarding Kohen she'Avar, but not regarding Merubeh Begadim.
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ALTARS
(Mishnah): The only difference between a large (public) Bamah and a small (private) one is Korban Pesach.
The rule is, one may offer on a (small) Bamah only Nedarim and Nedavos (Korbanos brought for vows or voluntarily).
(Gemara) Question: Korban Pesach is not the only difference! (The Tamid was brought on a public Bamah; the Seifa shows that it may not be brought on a private Bamah!)
Answer: It means that the only differences are (obligatory Korbanos with a fixed time,) like Pesach.
Our Mishnah is R. Shimon.
(Beraisa - R. Shimon): Even the Tzibur offered only Pesach and obligatory Korbanos with a fixed time. Chiyuvim without a fixed time (e.g. Par Helam Davar) may not be brought on either kind of Bamah.
(Mishnah): The only difference between (the Mikdashos in) Shilo and Yerushalayim is that Kodshim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheni could be eaten anywhere from which Shilo was visible, whereas the Heter of Yerushalayim was only within the wall.
In both places, Kodshei Kodoshim were eaten within the curtains. (In Shilo there were curtains around Chatzer ha'Mishkan. In Yerushalayim there were curtains around the Azarah while they were building the walls; after they were built, Kodshei Kodoshim were eaten within the walls.)
After (Churban) Shilo, Bamos were permitted. They were not permitted after (Churban) Yerushalayim.